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Invention of Counterinsurgency
Alfred Thayer Mahan: Advocate for Seapower
Americans in the Boer War
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Michael Headley Articles
Americans in the Boer War

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Americans in the Boer War
Americans in the Boer War 
by Michael Headley

Footnotes and Works Cited

Footnotes

[1]. The historiography of American involvement in the Boer War is limited to the work of Donal P. McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade: Irish Commandos in the Anglo-Boer War (Portland Oregon: Four Courts Press, 1999), and Roy Macnab, The French Colonel: Villebois-Mareuil and the Boers, 1899-1900 (Cape Town Johannesburg: Oxford University Press, 1975). While McCracken’s work is focused on the Irish involvement, he discusses several Irish-Americans and other Americans that fight alongside them. In addition, Macnab focuses his work specifically on the French colonel but discusses the overall foreign involvement in the Boer War, including Americans. Though the topic of this paper focuses on the Americans for the Boers, some comparisons are gained from looking into the life of Major Frederick Russell Burnham. Burnham has had several works written on him, most notably one by Peter van Wyk, Burnham King of Scouts: Baden-Powell’s Secret Mentor (Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing, 2003). Secondary works that touch on American involvement in South Africa and public opinion are presented in: Charles S. Campbell, Jr., Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903 (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1957); Thomas J. Noer, Briton, Boer, and Yankee: The United States in South Africa, 1870-1914, (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1978); Richard B. Mulanax, The Boer War in American Politics and Diplomacy (Lanham, New York, London: University of America Press, 1994).

[2]. John H. Ferguson, American Diplomacy and the Boer War (London: Oxford University Press, 1939), 20, 26, 27.

[3]. Richard B. Mulanax, The Boer War in American Politics and Diplomacy (Lanham, New York, London: University of America Press, 1994) 75.

[4]. “The 1916 Rising: Personalities and Perspectives,” National Library of Ireland.

[5]. McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade, 32.

[6]. McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade, 23; Macnab, The French Colonel, 165.

[7]. McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade, 29 using Ms. Judith A. Sibley, US Military Academy Archives, West Point to D.P. McCracken, 29 October 1996; U.S. Military Academy Cadet Application Papers, 1805-1866; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M688, 1 roll); Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780-1917, Record Group 94; National Archives, Washington, D.C.

[8]. Colonel John Y. F. Blake, A West Pointer with the Boers (Boston: Angel Guardian Press, 1903), iii.

[9]. McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade, 29; Grand Rapids City Directory, 1889. Grand Rapids, MI: R. L. Polk and Co., 1889; Michael Davitt, The Boer Fight for Freedom (New York, London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1902) 318; Macnab, The French Colonel, 165.

[10]. Colonel Blake, A West Pointer with the Boers, 176.

[11]. Ibid., 177.

[12]. Howard Clemens Hillegas, With the Boer Forces (London: Methuen & Co., 1900), 248.

[13]. The Ancient Order of Hibernians is a Catholic, Irish American Fraternal Organization founded in New York City on 4 May,1836. The Order can trace its roots back to a parent organization, of the same name, that existed in Ireland for over 300 years.

[14]. “Irish Corps Leaves Chicago,” The New York Times, February 12, 1900.

[15]. “Chicago Corps at Delagoa,” The New York Times, April 11, 1900.

[16]. “Chicago Ambulance Men Say They Will Fight,” The New York Times, April 12, 1900.

[17]. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),Washington D.C.; Emergency Passport Applications (Passports Issued Abroad), 1877-1907; Microfilm Serial: M1834; Roll #16.

[18]. Davis, With Both Armies in South Africa, 91.

[19]. Ibid., 95-96.

[20]. Ibid., 100.

[21]. Ibid., 105.

[22]. Colonel Blake, A West Pointer with the Boers, 131.

[23]. Ibid.

[24]. Ibid. 132.

[25]. Richard Harding Davis, With Both Armies in South Africa (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1900), 142.

[26]. Ibid., 140-143; McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade: Irish Commandos in the Anglo-Boer war, 106.

[27]. “Special to the New York Times,” The New York Times, April 19, 1900.

[28]. Ibid.

[29]. “One Chicagoan Soon Disgusted,” The New York Times, April 24, 1900.

[30]. Blake, A West Pointer with the Boers, 132.

[31]. Hillegas, With the Boer Forces, 263.

[32]. Ibid.

[33]. Hillegas, With the Boer Forces, 264; Macnab, The French Colonel, 167.

[34]. Hillegas, With the Boer Forces, 265.

[35]. Hillegas does not mention a rank or first name for MacCuen. Preliminary research on the U.S.S. Wabash indicates that it decommissioned in 1865 after the Civil War and then re-commissioned again in 1871 where it served as the flagship of the Mediterranean Squadron. In 1876, she gained the role as the receiving ship at the Boston Navy yard. She served her purpose there until sold in 1912.

[36]. Ibid., 266-267.

[37]. Ibid., 267. Attempts were made to find any of the writings published by Parson. Most of the Collier’s Weekly archives only go as far back as 1910. Earlier versions are extremely hard to find and exist mostly in private collections. Research was also scarce on J. B. Clarke. Since the name of the newspaper was not given by Hillegas his writings and insight remain unknown.

[38]. Ibid.

[39]. Ibid. It is unknown whether or not Hassell killed Lieutenant Carron.

[40]. Ibid., 268. Once again Hillegas does not mention a name for this American man. He does claim that he later became the adjutant to Colonel John Blake in the Irish Brigade. Donal P. McCracken lists the officers of the first Irish Brigade and besides Colonel Blake being listed as an American, there was a Captain Malcolm McCallum. This could be the adjutant described by Hillegas. See McCracken, MacBride’s Brigade: Irish Commandos in the Anglo-Boer war, 27.

[41]. Ibid., 269. Properly referred to as “Sanna’s Post,” it was the first major use of guerrilla tactics against the British. The British garrison held Bloemfontein's water works, the capital city of the Orange Free State, then occupied by the British.

[42]. Alan R. I, Hiley and John A. Hassell, The Mobile Boer: Being the Record of the Observations of Two Burgher Officers (New York: The Grafton Press, 1902), 158-159; Donal Lowry, “‘The Boers were the beginning of the end’? the wider impact of the South Africa War,” in The South African War reappraised, ed. Donal Lowry. (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 2000), 213.

[43]. Hiley and Hassell, The Mobile Boer, 159.

[44]. Ibid., 159-160.

[45]. Ibid., 130.

[46]. Ibid.

[47]. Lowry, “‘The Boers were the beginning of the end’?”, 203.

[48]. Ibid.

[49]. Ibid., 249; Frederick William Unger, With ‘Bobs’ and Kruger: Experiences and Observations of an American War Correspondent in the Field with Both Armies (Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates and Company, 1901), 336; See also Macnab, The French Colonel: Villebois-Mareuil and the Boers, 1899-1900, 159.

[50]. Hillegas, With the Boer Forces, 256.

[51]. Hiley and Hassell, The Mobile Boer, 34; Hillegas, With the Boer Forces, 257; Lowry, “‘The Boers were the beginning of the end’?” 212.

[52]. Richard Harding Davis, Notes of a War Correspondent (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912), 188.

[53]. Ibid., 189.

[54]. Ibid.

[55]. Ibid., 190.

[56]. Frederick Russell Burnham, Major, Scouting on Two Continents (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1928), 1-6.

[57]. Ibid., 12.

[58]. Ibid., 80.

[59]. Ibid.

[60]. Ibid., 82

[61]. War Office: Campaign Medal and Award Rolls 1793-1949 (General Series). The National Archives microfilm publication WO 100, 241 rolls. The National Archives of the UK, Kew, Surrey, England; Burnham, Major, Scouting on Two Continents, 211-215.

[62]. Richard Harding Davis, Real Soldiers of Fortune (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912), 216-218.

[63]. Davis, Real Soldiers of Fortune, 221; Burnham, Major, Scouting on Two Continents, 312-316.

[64]. Burnham, Major, Scouting on Two Continents, 321-325.

[65]. Davis, Real Soldiers of Fortune, 223.

[66]. Ibid., 224.

[67]. T.J. Gordon Gardiner, “The American Hero of Kimberley,” The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, Vol. 72, May 1906 – October 1906. 255-56. See the footnote from Labram’s sister, Clara Labram Vivian.

[68]. Ibid., 254.

[69]. Ibid., 256.

[70]. Ibid., 260.

[71]. Ibid., 261.

[72]. Ibid., 262-264.

[73]. Charles S. Campbell, Jr., Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903 (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1957), 1.

[74]. “Mark Twain Home, An Anti-Imperialist,” New York Herald, October 15, 1900.

[75]. Richard B. Mulanax, The Boer War in American Politics and Diplomacy (Lanham, New York, London: University of America Press, 1994), 136.

[76]. “Mr. Carnegie Scores War: Declares the Attack on the Boers Is Infamous – Severely Condemns Philippine Policy,” The New York Times, November 10, 1899.

[77]. Ibid.

[78]. Ibid.

[79]. Mulanax, The Boer War in American Politics and Diplomacy, 137.

[80]. Ibid., using Albert S. Burleson, “Speech in the House of Representatives, March 27, 1902,” Congressional Record, House (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1902), 3289-3290.

[81]. “Dr. Andrews Sees World at War,” The New York Times, December 19, 1899.

[82]. Ibid.

[83]. “Mason Denounces Boer War: Illinois Senator Urges a Resolution of Sympathy with the Transvaal Republic,” The New York Times, December 12, 1899.

[84]. Ibid.

[85]. “Michael Davitt Resigns: Leaves Parliament as a Protest Against the Transvaal War,” The New York Times, October 26, 1899.

[86]. Ibid.

[87]. Paul Headicke, “Boer War Like our Revolution,” The New York Times, Nov 7, 1899.

[88]. C. L. Burtnett, “Sides With the Boers,” The New York Times, December 24, 1899.

[89]. “Taking Sides in Boer War,” The New York Times, December 25, 1899.

[90]. “Alger on the Boer War,” The New York Times, February 4, 1900.

[91]. Ibid.

[92]. “Irish Agents in Africa: Alleged Work for Boer Government – Clan-Na-Gael Men Excited by Bundesrath’s Seizure,” The New York Times, Jan 1, 1900.

[93]. Ibid.

[94]. Ibid.

[95]. Ibid.

[96]. “Webster Davis Accused: Said to Have Recruited for the Boers While in Office,” The New York Times, September 14, 1900.

[97]. Ibid.

[98]. Victor Hoar, “The Abraham Lincoln Brigade and the Historians,” American Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Spring, 1970), 116; Robert A. Rosenstone, “The Men of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Sep., 1967), 327.

Bibliography

Primary Sources

"Alger on the Boer War." The New York Times, February 1900.

Blake Colonel, John Y. Filmore. A West Pointer with the Boers. Boston: Angel Guardian Press, 1903.

Burnham, Major, Frederick Russell. Scouting on Two Continents. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc, 1928.

Burtnett, C. L. "Sides With the Boers." The New York Times, December 1899.

“Chicago Ambulance Men Say They Will Fight.” The New York Times, April 12, 1900.

“Chicago Corps at Delagoa.” The New York Times, April 11, 1900.

Davis, Richard Harding. Notes of a War Correspondent. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912.

Davis, Richard Harding. Real Soldiers of Fortune. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1912.

Davis, Richard Harding. With Both Armies in South Africa. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900.

Davitt, Micharl. The Boer Fight for Freedom. New York, London: Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1902.

"Dr. Andrews Sees World at War." The New York Times, December 1899.

Gardiner, T.J. Gordon. “The American Hero of Kimberley.” The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, Vol. 72, May 1906 – October 1906.

Grand Rapids City Directory, 1889. Grand Rapids, MI: R. L. Polk and Co., 1889.

Headicke, Paul. "Boer War Like our Revolution." The New York Times, November 1899.

Hiley, Alan R. I., and John Allen Hassell. The Mobile Boer: Being the Record of the Observations of Two Burgher Officers. New York: The Grafton Press, 1902.

Hillegas, Howard Clemens. With the Boer Forces. London: Methuen & Co, 1900.

"Irish Agents in Africa: Alleged Work for Boer Government - Clan-N-Gael Men Excited by Bundesrath's Seizure." The New York Times, January 1900.

“Irish Corps Leaves Chicago.” The New York Times, February 12, 1900.

“Mark Twain Home, An Anti-Imperialist.” New York Herald, October 15, 1900.

"Mason Denounces Boer War: Illinois Senator Urges a Resolution of Sympathy with the Transvaal Republic." The New York Times, December 1899.

"Michael Davitt Resigns: Leaves Parliament as a Protest Against the Transvaal War." The New York Times, October 1899.

"Mr. Carnegie Scores War: Declares the Attack on the Boers is Infamous - Severely Condemns Philippine Policy." The New York Times, November 1899.

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA),Washington D.C.; Emergency Passport Applications (Passports Issued Abroad), 1877-1907; Microfilm Serial: M1834; Roll #16.

“One Chicagoan Soon Disgusted.” The New York Times, April 24, 1900.

"President McKinley Defines His Position." The New York Times, September 1900.

“Special to the New York Times.” The New York Times, April 19, 1900.

"Taking Sides in Boer War." The New York Times, December 1899.

Unger, Frederick William. With "Bobs" and Kruger: Experiences and Observations of an American War Correspondent in the Field with Both Armies. Philadelphia: Henry T. Coates and Company, 1901.

U.S. Military Academy Cadet Application Papers, 1805-1866; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M688, 1 roll); Records of the Adjutant General’s Office, 1780’s-1917, Record Group 94; National Archives, Washington, D.C.

War Office: Campaign Medal and Award Rolls 1793-1949 (General Series). The National Archives microfilm publication WO 100, 241 rolls. The National Archives of the UK, Kew, Surrey, England.

"Webster Davis Accused: Said to Have Recruited for the Boers While in Office." The New York Times, September 1900.

Secondary Sources

Campbell Jr., Charles S. Anglo-American Understanding, 1898-1903. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1957.

Ferguson, John H. American Diplomacy and the Boer War. London: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Hoar, Vicor. “The Abraham Lincoln Brigade and the Historians.” American Quarterly 22, No. 1 (Spring, 1970): 112-119.

Lowry, Donal. ""The Boers were the beginning of the end?" the wider impact of the South Africa War." In The South African War reappraised, edited by Donal Lowry. Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 2000.

Macnab, Roy. The French Colonel: Villebois-Mareuil and the Boers, 1899-1900. Cape Town Johannesburg: Oxford University Press, 1975.

McCracken, Donal P. MacBride's Brigade: Irish Commados in the Anglo-Boer war. Portland: Four Courts Press, 1999.

Mulanax, Richard B. The Boer War in American Politics and Diplomacy. Lanham, New York, London: University of America Press, 1994.

Noer, Thomas J. Briton, Boer, Yankee: The Untied States and South Africa, 1870-1914. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1978.

Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. London: Abacus, 2010.

Rosenstone, Robert A. “The Men of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion.” The Journal of American History 54, No. 2 (Sep., 1967): 327-338.

“The 1916 Rising: Personalities & Perspectives.” National Library of Ireland, http://www.nli.ie/1916/pdfs.html.

Van Wyk, Peter. Burnham King of Scouts: Baden-Powell’s Secret Mentor. Victoria, Canada: Trafford Publishing, 2003.
 
* * *

Copyright © 2013 Michael Headley.

Written by Michael Headley. If you have questions or comments on this article, please contact Michael Headley at:
headley30@gmail.com.

About the author:
Michael Headley has a Master's Degree in Military History from Norwich University and a Bachelor's Degree in History from Hope College. He currently lives and works in Grand Rapids, Michigan and participates in historical re-enactments -- specifically British soldiers during the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War.

Published online: 9/2/2013.

* Views expressed by contributors are their own and do not necessarily represent those of MHO.
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