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The Quality of the Combatants in the Black Hawk War
The Quality of the Combatants in the Black Hawk War 
by Robert C. Daniels

Footnotes and Works Cited

Footnotes

[1]. Sometimes written as Sauk. Cyrenus Cole, I Am a Man: The Indian Black Hawk (Iowa City, IO: The State Historical Society, 1938), 20.

[2]. Black Hawk, Life of Black Hawk, ed. by Milo Milton Quaife (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1994), xxi.

[3]. A confederation between the separate Sac and Fox Indian tribes had existed for several generations, resulting in the tribes normally being associated as one tribe under the combined title of ‘Sac and Fox.' William T Hagan, The Sac and Fox Indians (Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958), VII.

[4]. James Lewis, Ph.D, The Black Hawk War of 1832 (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/background.html, 23 January 2007).

[5]. Black Hawk's group of Sac and Fox Indians were dubbed the British Band because they continued to associate and trade with the British at Fort Malden in defiance to the United States Government's wishes. Allan W Eckert, The Twilight of Empire: A Narrative (Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 2004), 66.

[6]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/scholarshipindex.html, 23 January 2007).

[7]. The Winnebago Prophet was Wabokieshiek (White Cloud), a half-Sac, half-Winnebago medicine man and self proclaimed prophet, who had a village (Prophet's Town) and land about thirty-eight miles up the Rock River from the Mississippi River. Eckert, 519.

[8]. Ibid., 166.

[9]. Ibid.

[10]. Ibid., 154.

[11]. Ibid., 167.

[12]. Hagan, 148.

[13]. Edward M Coffman, The Old Army (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 42.

[14]. Ibid., 55.

[15]. David Herbert Donald, Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1995), 44.

[16]. Ibid.

[17]. Ibid.

[18]. Lloyd H. Efflandt, The Black Hawk War, Why? (Rock Island, IL: Rock Island Arsenal Historical Society, 1986), 6.

[19]. Donald, 46

[20]. Eckert, 199.

[21]. Efflandt, 6.

[22]. Eckert, 199-200.

[23]. Ibid., 190.

[24]. Efflandt, 6.

[25]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2a.html, 23 January 2007).

[26]. Donald., 45.

[27]. Ibid.

[28]. Efflandt, 6.

[29]. Eckert., 191.

[30]. Black Hawk, 56.

[31]. Hagan, 153-154.

[32]. Eckert, 241.

[33]. Cole, 139.

[34]. Eckert, 242-243.

[35]. Hagan, 138.

[36]. It has never been proven why Neapope and the Winnebago Prophet purposely mislead Black Hawk. Neopope especially was a close friend, confidant, and strong supporter of Black Hawk.

[37]. Hagan, 158.

[38]. Donald Jackson, Black Hawk: an Autobiography (Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press, 1964), 123.

[39]. Cole, 149.

[40]. Ibid.,152.

[41]. Hagan, 160.

[42]. Eckert, 257.

[43]. Hagan, 159.

[44]. Wakefield, John Allen, History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians, in the Years Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven, Thirty-One, and Thirty-Two. Edited by Stevens Frank Everett. (Jacksonville, Ill.: Calvin Goudy, 1834. As printed by permission: Northern Illinois University at http://colet.uchicago.edu/cgi- bin/getobject_?c.58:6./projects/artflb/databases/artfl/lincoln/IMAGE/, 18 Aug 2006), 51.

[45]. Jackson, 123.

[46]. Hagan, 160.

[47]. Eckert, 255.

[48]. Cole, 152.

[49]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2a.html).

[50]. Jackson, 126-127.

[51]. Ibid., 126.

[52]. Eckert, 288.

[53]. Ibid., 163.

[54]. Efflandt, 7.

[55]. Eckert, 260.

[56]. Jackson, 127.

[57]. Eckert, 63.

[58]. According to Black Hawk himself. Cole, 24.

[59]. Eckert, 42.

[60]. Ibid., 24-25.

[61]. Efflandt, 10.

[62]. Hagan, 164.

[63]. Cole, 25.

[64]. Hagan, 164.

[65]. Ibid., 162.

[66]. Ibid, 164.

[67]. Ibid.

[68]. Donald, 44.

[69]. Ibid., 45.

[70]. Eckert, 423.

[71]. Cole, 141.

[72]. Hagan, 166.

[73]. Ibid., 153.

[74]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html, 23 January 2007).

[75]. Eckert, 344-351.

[76]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html).

[77]. Eckert, 347-352.

[78]. Black Hawk, 63-64.

[79]. Eckert, 294.

[80]. Perry A. Armstrong, The Sauks and the Black Hawk War (Springfield IL: H.W. Rokker, 1887), 321.

[81]. Eckert, 325.

[82]. Ibid., 327.

[83]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html).

[84]. Cole, 190.

[85]. Eckert, 423.

[86]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html).

[87]. Cole, 194.

[88]. William Preston Johnston, The life of General Albert Sydney Johnston (Publisher and date unknown), 38; quoted in Cyrenus Cole, I Am a Man: The Indian Black Hawk (Iowa City, IO: The State Historical Society, 1938), 196, n. 126.

[89]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html).

[90]. Jackson, 133.

[91]. Eckert, 456.

[92]. Ibid., 414-419.

[93]. Cole, 191.

[94]. Eckert, 451.

[95]. Ibid., 547, n. 308.

[96]. Efflandt, 13.

[97]. Eckert, 477.

[98]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2c.html, 23 January 2007).

[99]. Efflandt, 13.

[100]. Eckert, 470.

[101]. Ibid.

[102]. Ibid., 479.

[103]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2c.html).

[104]. Ibid.

[105]. Cole, 210.

[106]. Eckert, 479-480.

[107]. Ibid., 484.

[108]. Ibid., 485.

[109]. Ibid., 485.

[110]. Jackson, 137.

[111]. Eckert, 448.

[112]. Hagan, 186.

[113]. Black Hawk, 67.

[114]. Hagan, 186.

[115]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2c.html).

[116]. Efflandt, 14.

[117]. Eckert, 495.

[118]. Lewis, (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2c.html).

[119]. Eckert, 496.

[120]. Eckert, 499.

[121]. Eckert, 332.

Works Cited

Armstrong, Perry A. The Sauks and the Black Hawk War. Springfield IL: H.W. Rokker, 1887.

Black. Hawk. Life of Black Hawk. Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1994.

Coffman, Edward M. The Old Army. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Cole, Cyrenus. I Am a Man: The Indian Black Hawk. Iowa City, IO: The State Historical Society, 1938.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1995.

Eckert, Allan W. The Twilight of Empire: A Narrative. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 2004.

Efflandt, Lloyd H. The Black Hawk War, Why? Rock Island, IL: Rock Island Arsenal Historical Society, 1986.

Jackson, Donald. Black Hawk: an Autobiography. Urbana IL: University of Illinois Press, 1964.

Johnston, William Preston. The life of General Albert Sydney Johnston. Publisher and date unknown, 38. Quoted in Cyrenus Cole, I Am a Man: The Indian Black

Hawk, 196, n. 126. Iowa City, IO: The State Historical Society, 1938.

Hagan, William T. The Sac and Fox Indians . Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.

Lewis, James, Ph.D. The Black Hawk War of 1832 (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/background.html, (23 January 2007).
_____ (http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/scholarshipindex.html, (23 January 2007).
_____ http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2a.html, (23 January 2007).
_____ http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2b.html, (23 January 2007).
_____ http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2c.html, (23 January 2007).

Wakefield, John Allen. History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians, and Parts of Other Disaffected Tribes of Indians, in the Years Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-Seven, Thirty-One, and Thirty-Two. Edited by Stevens Frank Everett. Jacksonville, Ill.: Calvin Goudy, 1834. As printed by permission: Northern Illinois University at http://colet.uchicago.edu/cgi- bin/getobject_?c.58:6./projects/artflb/databases/artfl/lincoln/IMAGE/, 18 Aug 2006.
* * *

Copyright © 2007 Robert C. Daniels.

Written by Robert C. Daniels. If you have questions or comments on this article, please contact Robert Daniels at:
rdaniels26@cox.net.

About the author:
Robert Daniels, after retiring from the U.S. Navy as a Chief Petty Officer, received his AA from Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach, VA, his BA in History from Old Dominion University (ODU), Norfolk, VA, and his MA in Military Studies, Land Warfare from the American Military University (AMU), Manassas Park, VA. He has also written and published two books telling the exploits of both WWII era veterans and civilians: 1220 Days and World War II in Mid-America. Excerpts of these books, as well as access to order autographed copies of them, a short author bio, and info on his current writing projects can be viewed on his web page at http://www.robertcdaniels.com He currently teaches adjunct U.S. and Western Civilization History at Tidewater Community College in Virginia Beach, VA, when not managing a U.S. Coast Guard schoolhouse.

Published online: 3/18/2007.

* Views expressed by contributors are their own and do not necessarily represent those of MHO.
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