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 (1939-1945) WWII Battles    
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John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/13/2017 10:36:06 PM
I've been doing some reading on the 6th Army campaign on Luzon from the recapture of Manila to the end of the war and its maybe the hardest fighting in the Pacific war that nobody knows about. It is also going a long way towards reinforcing my negative opinions about MacArthur. For example once Manila was recaptured and declared secure one of the main issues was to get the water flowing again hence the campaign to capture the Wawa and Ipo Dams. The only problem was that the Wawa Dam hadn't been supplying any water to Manila since 1938. The 6th Infantry Division spent over two months attacking prepared defensive positions over terrain that greatly favored the defense taking very heavy casualties in the process basically for no strategic and very little tactical gain.

I'm also looking at some of the intel estimates on Japanese strength both in total and how it was divided over the island and the difference between MacArthur's and 6th Army is significant and both are low in most cases. This seems a little unbelievable to me given Ultra and the extensive resistence network in the Phillipines. I have to say 6th Army's estimate was only like 30,000 short but Mac's was like 130,000.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 4:01:32 AM
The US and Japanese armies were evenly matched at 275,000,but the Japanese are shewn to have about 240 tanks in Feb 1945

Battles continued throughout the island of Luzon in the following weeks, with more U.S. troops having landed on the island. Filipino and American resistance fighters also attacked Japanese positions and secured several locations.

The Allies had taken control of all strategically and economically important locations of Luzon by early March 1945. Small groups of the remaining Japanese forces retreated to the mountainous areas in the north and southeast of the island, where they were besieged for months.

Pockets of Japanese soldiers held out in the mountains—most ceasing resistance with the unconditional surrender of Japan, but a scattered few holding out for many years afterwards.

Casualties were stunningly high for the Japanese. Japanese losses were 205,535 dead, with only 9,050 taken prisoners-also note zero Wounded. U.S. losses were far lower, with 10,640 dead and 36,550 wounded. Civilian casualties are estimated at a horrific 120,000 to 140,000 dead-Yamashita was executed for these civilian deaths.

Regards

jim

---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

Michigan Dave
Muskegon, Michigan, MI, USA
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 2964

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 9:14:23 AM
John, & Jim,

My late father John, received his 2nd Purple Heart from a wound on Luzon, on these orders from MacArther.

His unit with the 1st US Cavalry was also involved!

[Read More]

With the dangers my dad saw in the Pacific, I'm lucky to be here!
MD
---------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 9:57:11 AM
Jim,

Your numbers are wrong. 9 US Divisions on Luzon, 7 Infantry, 1 Cavalry and 1 Airborne plus corps and army troop are about 100,000 short of 275,000. Also I believe thw Japanese strength was 262,000 but that a quibble/ Gotta go for a bit
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 10:23:15 AM
CORRECTION

Units involved

United States Sixth Army
I Corps
6th Infantry Division
43rd Infantry Division
XIV Corps
37th Infantry Division
40th Infantry Division
X Corps
1st Cavalry Division
24th Infantry Division
XXIV Corps
7th Infantry Division
96th Infantry Division
Sixth Army Reserves
25th Infantry Division
11th Airborne Division
158th Infantry Regiment
13th Armored Group
6th Ranger Battalion
United States Eighth Army
XI Corps
23rd Infantry Division
31st Infantry Division
41st Infantry Division
93rd Infantry Division
503rd Infantry Regiment

Commonwealth of the Philippines Philippine Commonwealth Military
Commonwealth of the Philippines Philippine Commonwealth Army
Commonwealth of the Philippines Philippine Constabulary (from 1944)
Commonwealth of the Philippines Philippine Army Air Corps (from 1945)
Commonwealth of the Philippines Resistance and Irregular Forces
Commonwealth of the Philippines Recognized Guerrilla Unit
Hukbalahap

United States Fifth Air Force
Mexico 201st Fighter Squadron[1]
Naval elements:
United States Third Fleet
United States Seventh Fleet
Australia Task Force 74

Empire of Japan Fourteenth Area Army units include:
1st Infantry Division
10th Infantry Division
19th Infantry Division
23rd Infantry Division
26th Infantry Division
103rd Infantry Division
105th Infantry Division
2nd Tank Division
1st Special Forces Division
68th Infantry Brigade
55th Mixed Brigade
58th Mixed Brigade
Empire of Japan 35th Army
16th Infantry Division
30th Infantry Division
100th Infantry Division
102nd Infantry Division
54th Mixed Brigade
Empire of Japan 41st Army
9th Artillery HQ
8th Infantry Division
39th Mixed Brigade
65th Infantry Brigade
Aerial elements:
Empire of Japan Fourth Air Army
6th Air Division
7th Air Division
Empire of Japan 1st Naval Air Fleet
Empire of Japan 2nd Naval Air Fleet
Naval elements:
Empire of Japan 2nd Fleet
Empire of Japan 3rd Fleet
Empire of Japan 5th Fleet

Strength
United States 1,250,000
Commonwealth of the Philippines 260,715 (1945)
Empire of Japan 529,802


Casualties and losses
United States American
Manpower:
Army: 16,043 dead and missing,
55,531 wounded
Navy: 7,270+ dead and wounded
Tens of thousands hospitalized due to disease
Total: 79,104+ dead and wounded


Material:
33+ ships sunk
95+ ships damaged
485+ aircraft

Commonwealth of the Philippines Filipino
Unknown, but high

Empire of Japan Japanese
Manpower: ~430,000 dead and missing (80% from starvation or disease (per Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare)


Material:
93+ ships sunk
1,300 aircraft

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 12:01:42 PM
Jim,

You are giving strengths for the entire Philippines and I'm talking about Luzon only.
6th Army on Luzon
1st Cav Div
11th Airborne Div
6th Infantry Div
25th Infantry Div
32nd Infantry Div
33rd Infantry Div
37th Infantry Div
38th Infantry Div
43rd Infantry Div
6th Ranger Bat
13th Arm Grp
It was broken down into 3 Corps, the I, XI and XIV. The other units assigned to 6th Army were attached to 8th Army to undertake the liberation of the rest of the islands in the chain and were not available on Luzon.

All of these units were understrength when the invasion began and that kept getting worse and they incurred casualties on Luzon as the replacement stream could never keep up.

The Japanese strength on Luzon was 262,00 dived into 3 Groups.
Shobu Grp under Yamashita of 152,000
24th Tank Div
10th Div
19th Div
23d Div
103d Div
58th IMB
Taudo Def
Elemts of 4th Air Army

Shimbu Grp under Yokoyuma of 80,000
8th Div
105th Div
Manila Def Force
elements 4th Air Army

Kembu Grp under Taukodo of 30,000
1st Raidinf Grp
2nd Mobile Inf Div
39th Inf Div minus
Naval Combat & Service troops
Elements of 4th Air Army
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 12:37:15 PM
John-The only figure I can find for Luzon 1945 is 275,000; but perhaps this includes Philippine forces.I agree that the actual US units deployed on Luzon- would come to no more than 180,000 men.

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 1:00:24 PM
Jim,

I'm reading "Pacific Hurtgen" by Robert M. Young and it breaks it down very well and is hammering in the point of just how short on infantry men the Luzon Campaign was basically from start to finish. Now if hasn't taken into account the Resistence as of yet but I'm really not even half through with the book.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 1:37:58 PM
The landings at the Lingayen Gulf on 9 January were carried out by the 6th Army under the command of General Walter Krueger. Approximately 175,000 troops from the 6th Army landed along the 20-mile (32 km) beachhead within a few days, while the I Corps protected their flanks.

XIV Corps under General Oscar Griswold then advanced south toward Manila, despite Krueger's concerns that his eastern flank was unprotected and vulnerable if the Japanese forces attacked.

However, no such attack occurred, and the U.S. forces did not meet much resistance until they reached the Clark Air Base on 23 January. The battle there lasted until the end of January, and after capturing the base, XIV Corps advanced toward Manila.

A second amphibious landing took place on 15 January, 45 mi (72 km) southwest of Manila. On 31 January, two regiments of the 11th Airborne Division made an airborne assault, capturing a bridge, and later advanced toward Manila.

On 3 February, the 1st Cavalry Division captured the bridge across Tullahan River leading to the city. They advanced into the city that evening, and the battle for the capture of Manila began.

On 4 February, the paratroopers of the 11th Airborne—approaching the city from the south—came to the main Japanese defences south of the city of Manila where their advance was halted by heavy resistance.

Source-Wikipedia

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 2:09:19 PM
Jim,

Agreed that is a good overview of what happened before the battle for Manila but this book deals with what happened after the recapture of Manila to the end of the war. It is a little reported or studied period in WWII and from what I'm reading it was also some of the hardest fighting in the Pacific right up there with Tarawa, Pelilui, Iwo and the Shuri Line.

A example from the 6th ID's 1st Inf Regiment War Dairy,

"Up to this time the Regiment had been in combat for 84 consecutive days and the battalions had been decimated to such a point that they were no longer capable of carrying out the powerful offensive thrusts necessary to breach the enemy's heavily fortified position. taking this fact into consideration it was decided to maintain present positions and pound the enemy with mortars, artillery and air strikes until such times as our forces were able to attack again."

That is from the first of April 1945.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 2:34:09 PM
Army Historian Robert R. Smith wrote:

"Griswold and Beightler were not willing to attempt the assault with infantry alone. Not expressly enjoined from employing artillery, they now planned a massive artillery preparation that would last from 17 to 23 February and would include indirect fire at ranges up to 8,000 yards as well as direct, point-blank fire from ranges as short as 250 yards.

They would employ all available Corps and Division artillery, from 240mm howitzers down. (...) Just how civilian lives could be saved by this type of preparation, as opposed to aerial bombardment, is unknown. The net result would be the same: Intramuros would be practically razed."

"That the artillery had almost razed the ancient Walled City could not be helped. To the XIV Corps and the 37th Division at this state of the battle for Manila, American lives were understandably far more valuable than historic landmarks.

The destruction stemmed from the American decision to save lives in a battle against Japanese troops who had decided to sacrifice their lives as dearly as possible".


PS i am now time expired-off line

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/14/2017 9:37:12 PM
Jim,

The fact that the Japanese Naval commander decided to fight in Manila against Yamashita's orders to retreat and declare it a open city a;so has a lot to do with what happened in Manila.

But this book basically starts after the fall of Manila, the battle of Manila isn't covered in the book. After setting the stage with a situational overview and a discussion on the opposing forces the book starts with the main objectives after the recapture of Manila. First reopening the flow of water into Manila from the Wawa and Ipo Dams and second the clearing of Bataan to make Manila Bay a usable ancorage and port facility for "future operations." That is also one of the points it brings up about MacArthur's generalship during the war, his habit to start the next phase before the current is finished and to kind of lose interest in finishing once the precieved "glory" has been won.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 3:42:04 AM
The battle for Manila was the first and fiercest urban fighting in the entire Pacific War. Few battles in the closing months of World War II exceeded the destruction and the brutality of the massacres and savagery of the fighting in Manila. 136,200 civilians were dead. In Manila's business district only two buildings were not damaged and those two were looted of their plumbing.

A steel flagpole stands at the entrance to the old U.S. Embassy building in Ermita, which was pockmarked by numerous bullet and shrapnel hits, and still stands today, a testament to the intense, bitter fighting for the walled city. In this category, Manila joined Stalingrad as being the host to some of the fiercest urban fighting during the war.

Filipinos lost an irreplaceable cultural and historical treasure in the resulting carnage and devastation of Manila, remembered today as a national tragedy. Countless government buildings, universities and colleges, convents, monasteries and churches, and their accompanying treasures dating to the founding of the city, were ruined.

The cultural patrimony (including art, literature, and especially architecture) of the Orient's first truly international melting pot - the confluence of Spanish, American and Asian cultures - was eviscerated. Manila, once touted as the "Pearl of the Orient" and famed as a living monument to the meeting of Asian and European cultures, was virtually wiped out.

Most of the buildings damaged during the war were demolished after the Liberation, as part of rebuilding Manila, replacing European style architecture from the Spanish and early American era with modern American style architecture. Only a few old buildings remain intact.

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 3:46:46 AM
Battles continued throughout the island of Luzon in the following weeks, with more U.S. troops having landed on the island. Filipino and American resistance fighters also attacked Japanese positions and secured several locations.

The Allies had taken control of all strategically and economically important locations of Luzon by early March. Small groups of the remaining Japanese forces retreated to the mountainous areas in the north and southeast of the island, where they were besieged for months.

Pockets of Japanese soldiers held out in the mountains—most ceasing resistance with the unconditional surrender of Japan, but a scattered few holding out for many years afterwards.

Casualties were stunningly high for the Japanese. Japanese losses were 205,535 dead, with 9,050 taken prisoners. U.S. losses were far lower, with 10,640 dead and 36,550 wounded. Civilian casualties are estimated at 120,000 to 140,000 dead.


Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 12:21:26 PM
Jim,

No that, "small groups of the remaining Japanese forces retreated" and ""Pockets of Japanese soldiers", is wrong. It wasn't small numbers of survivers retreating it was the bulk of the Japanese force sitting in prepared and pre-registered positions waiting for the US forces to attack. Manila is the "face" of the campaign on Luzon but only about 10% of the Japanese force was involved in the fight for Manila. There was a lot of hard fighting still to be done.

Also you are giving 214,000 give or take for the total of Japanese dead and captured but that is 48,000 short of the number of Japanese I have and 60,000 for the number you have given previous.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 12:57:41 PM
Japanese casualties totalled 214,585
(205,535 dead -Mostly from diseases and starvation; and surprisingly 9050 POW !!! and 232 tanks lost.From 275,000 to start with.I have to agree if asked- where are the other 60,000-there can't have have been that many hiding in the hinterland.I will look elsewhere for different figures

Extracted from Wikipedia

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

anemone
DONCASTER S. YORKS, UK
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 6103
http:// 82.44.47.99
Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 1:12:02 PM
Organized Japanese resistance ended on 28 June 1945, but pockets of enemy resistance continued for many months thereafter. American POWs were freed at Santo Tomas, Cabanatuan, Los Banos and Baguio. On 15 August General Yamashita surrendered with 50,500 troops.

Japanese casualties were about 230,000. The American forces suffered 10,380 killed and 36,550 wounded. There were also 93,400 non combatant casualties including 260 deaths, most from disease.

From the U.S. Army Center of Military History: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II: Luzon

Regards

Jim
---------------
Pro Patria Saepe Pro Rege Semper

Michigan Dave
Muskegon, Michigan, MI, USA
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 2964

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/15/2017 10:18:49 PM
Jim,

You wonder how IJA commander, Gen. Yamashita feels surrendering, imagine that. He got convicted of WAR CRIMES. He sure had it coming.

Poor death march prisoners,
MD
---------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."

John R. Price
Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA
top 15
E-8 Master Sergeant
Posts: 553

Re: Luzon after the recapture of Manila
Posted on: 7/16/2017 1:30:03 AM
MD,

Yamashita wasn't commanding in the Philippines in 41-42 he was kinda busy taking Singapore. Homma was the Japanese commander in 41-42.
---------------
A battle long forgotten by our country in a war never understood by our country.
"to satisfy our endless needs and justify our bloody deeds, in the name of destiny and in the name of God"


 (1939-1945) WWII Battles    
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