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 American Civil War Politics (Unmoderated)    
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1stvermont
Vermont, VT, USA
top 50
E-4 Specialist


Posts: 82

Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of History
Posted on: 11/23/2017 6:10:41 AM
On an earlier thread on this forum [http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/Forums/ViewPost.aspx?ForumID=32&ID=32596 ] I was asked to support that what I called the politically correct version of history was false. I will be doing a series on all the subjects brought up as I have done so on a couple of the subjects already

Slavery
http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/Forums/ViewPost.aspx?ForumID=19&ID=32554

Causes of Southern secession
http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/Forums/ViewPost.aspx?ForumID=32&ID=32632
http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/Forums/ViewPost.aspx?ForumID=32&ID=32631

Today I wish to do so with the claim that Abraham Lincoln saved the Constitution. This will need two posts, one for his actions as president, and one for the results of his presidency and his [and the republican] agenda. I will argue no president has done more to destroy the Constitution, or violated it, and none has done more to destroy the union of the founders than Lincoln.


From Union to Empire

“Resolved, That the several States composing, the United States of America, are not united on the principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes — delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force: that to this compact each State acceded as a State, and is an integral part, its co-States forming, as to itself, the other party: that the government created by this compact was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; since that would have made its discretion, and not the Constitution, the measure of its powers; but that, as in all other cases of compact among powers having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself...each party has equal right to judge for itself”
-Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 written by Thomas Jefferson

"That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties; as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting the compact; as no further valid that they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.
-Virginia Resolutions Written by James Madison

"The Union was formed by the voluntary agreement of the states; and these, in uniting together, have not forfeited their nationality, nor have they been reduced to the condition of one and the same people.
-Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America


While it was not the universal opinion of the founders, it was the majority that dominated politics in early American life. The conservatism of the day Known often as Jeffersonian democracy or Jeffersonian agrarians, of a political belief that flowed from the state ratification conventions, especially the Virginian ratification convention. And led by southern [mainly] Virginian planters, held to what was called the compact theory of the union. In 1803 Virginian St George Tucker authored “A view of the constitution of the united states” the dominate view of the federal government at the time. Jefferson first election when the issue of the union came up with the Alien and sedition acts. The nationalist view held by men like Danial Webster, Joseph Story and John Jay, was the minority view. The compact view of Jefferson and James Madison, the “principles of 98” expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky resolution of 1798. This view [that went back to even before the ratification conventions] would dominate the political landscape for decades, and the Virginia conventions understanding of the union would dominate American life before the civil war. 9 of the first 11 presidents were southern plantation owners, 7 of the first 12 were Virginians [many two term] 9 were southern, and 1 from New York, at that time was “southern” in politics. The future confederate states would provide 13 of the first 18 us presidents before Lincoln.

Today the federal government has the authority over all peoples and states. Everything is subject to its authority. This is not how it has always been or intended by the founders. The federal government only had power and authority that was delegated it by the states. That authority was only within the limits specifically stated in the Constitution.

“The powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined.”
-James Madison Federalist Papers #45


The states were to govern the rest.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people”
-10th amendment U.S Constitution

“Everything not expressly mentioned will be presumed to be purposely omitted”
-James Wilson Pennsylvanian Ratification convention

“We the delegates of the people of Virginia duly elected...declare and make known, that the powers granted under the constitution, being derived from the people of the united states, may be resumed by them whenever it should be perverted to their injury f...that every power not granted thereby, remains with them”
-Virginia ratification act



The powers that the federal government had, were not Superior to the states, but inferior. Since deriving its delegated powers from the states, who existed before the constitution. Madison stated the meaning of the constitution is found “In those state conventions where it received all the authority which it possessed.” The original constitution reads “A constitution for the united states.”

“I consider the foundation of the [Federal] Constitution as laid on this ground: That “all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people.” [10th Amendment] To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specifically drawn around the powers of Congress is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition.”
– Thomas Jefferson, “Opinion on the Constitutionality of a National Bank” [February 15, 1791]

“Our government is not to be maintained or our union preserved by invasions of the powers of the several states... its true strength consists in leaving individuals and states as much as possible to themselves ..not in binding the states more closely to the center”
-President Andrew Jackson


Even Federalist at the state conventions assured the people that if the federal overstepped its clear delegated powers, these actions were unconstitutional and void.

“no legislative act, therefore contrary to the constitution, can be valid”
-Alexander Hamilton federalist #78

“Congress cannot assume any other powers than those expressly given them. Powers of congress are all defined and clearly laid down. So for they may go, but no further”
-Samuel Johnston North Carolina convention

“Every power, jurisdiction, and right which is not by the said constitution clearly delegated to the united states of America, or or of the government thereof remains to the people of the several states, or to the representatives state governments”
-New York ratification convention


Sovereignty lied with we the people represented by elected officials of our states.

“The attributes of sovereignty are now enjoyed by every state in the union”
-Alexander Hamilton 
“The thirteen states are thirteen sovereign bodies”
-Oliver Ellsworth 

“A compact between separate communities”
-James cooper New yorker 1833


States Rights in Action

“The duty of state governments, to protect themselves from encroachments”
-Joseph Desha Kentucky Governor 1825

“The true barriers of our liberty...are the state governments”
-Thomas Jefferson


It was the states in their sovereignty that did almost all the governing “State authority was the rule, federal the exception.” As president Pierce said in 1855 “the power is in states alone.” The federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it in the constitution. For example Jefferson was not against internal improvements as many believe, he just said their had to be an amendment first to the constitution. If the federal government assumed such powers, its acts could be declared unconstitutional by the states. States could decide the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress. At North Carolina’s ratifying convention, James Iredell told the delegates that when “Congress passes a law consistent with the Constitution, it is to be binding on the people. If Congress, under pretense of executing one power, should, in fact, usurp another, they will violate the Constitution.” In December 1787 Roger Sherman observed that an “excellency of the constitution” was that “when the government of the united States acts within its proper bounds it will be the interest of the legislatures of the particular States to Support it, but when it leaps over those bounds and interferes with the rights of the State governments they will be powerful enough to check it.”

“Unconstitutional [laws] void and of no effect. It is the right and the duty of the several states to nullify those acts”
-John Breckenridge Kentucky

“Sir they [the states] ought not to submit, they would deserve the chains which there masters are forging for them, if they did not resist”
-Edward Livingston NY house of representatives


Before Lincoln states determined their own domestic affairs. They were not forced by an all powerful authoritative federal government to comply to its standards. States could nullify unconstitutional rulings and laws from the federal government. One of the first times the federal government, in this case the supreme court, tried to force itself on a state, in the court case Chisholm V Georgia 1793. The state of Georgia declared that to submit to a federal court would destroy the “Retained sovereignty of the state.” The federalist supreme court voted 4-1 that Georgia must comply with the federal court ruling. So the Georgia legislature passed a bill that any federal agent in the state that attempted to enforce the federal supreme court ruling, should be hanged. So no federal agent dared enter the state. This resulted in the passing of the 11th amendment as congress itself supporter state sovereignty against the supreme court. In 1850 a dispute in Texas over land in the New Mexico territory almost led to the secession of Texas. Texas called for force to be used to maintain its integrity. South Carolina nullified the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. States rights were more common in the north, descendants of the federalist party some examples are below.

“The solemn duty of the state governments...to interpose”
-Federalist/ Nationalist Daniel Webster


The Embargo of 1807-1809 

Thomas Jefferson as president declared an embargo on all American ports. Massachusetts nullified the federal law and replied 

“While this State maintains its sovereignty and independence, all the citizens can find protection against outrage and injustice in the strong arm of the State government..not legally binding on the citizens of this State.”

Connecticut responded with the resolution of the general Assembly

“Resolved, That to preserve the Union, and support the constitution of the United States, it becomes the duty of the Legislatures of the States, in such a crisis of affairs, vigilantly to watch over, and vigorously to maintain, the powers not delegated to the United States, but reserved to the States respectively, or to the people; and that a due regard to this duty, will not permit this Assembly to assist, or concur in giving effect to the aforesaid unconstitutional act, passed, to enforce the Embargo”

The war of 1812

When Connecticut was called to bring out its militia to guard the cost they replied 

"It must not be forgotten, that the state of Connecticut is a FREE SOVEREIGN and INDEPENDENT state; that the United States are a confederacy of states; that we are a confederated and not a consolidated republic. The governor of this state is under a high and solemn obligation, “to maintain the lawful rights and privileges thereof, as a sovereign, free and independent state,” as he is “to support the constitution of the United States,” and the obligation to support the latter, imposes an additional obligation to support the former."

and the Governor stated

“It is their right, [states] it becomes there duty, to interpose their protecting shield between their rights and liberty of the people, and the assumed power of the general government”
-Governor Jonathan Trumbull Connecticut


1813 Embargo 

In response to the embargo Massachusetts General Court approved

"A power to regulate commerce is abused, when employed to destroy it; and a manifest and voluntary abuse of power sanctions the right of resistance, as much as a direct and palpable usurpation. The sovereignty reserved to the states, was reserved to protect the citizens from acts of violence by the United States, as well as for purposes of domestic regulation. We spurn the idea that the free, sovereign and independent State of Massachusetts is reduced to a mere municipal corporation, without power to protect its people, and to defend them from oppression, from whatever quarter it comes. Whenever the national compact is violated, and the citizens of this State are oppressed by cruel and unauthorized laws, this Legislature is bound to interpose its power, and wrest from the oppressor its victim."


In 1820, when Ohio was fighting against the unconstitutional Bank of the United States, it recognized and approved "the doctrines asserted by the Legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky, in their resolutions of November and December, 1798, and January 1800 — and do consider that their principles have been recognized and adopted by a majority of the American people"


Fugitive Slave Laws/ Liberty Laws

 “The States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, have enacted laws which either nullify the Acts of Congress or render useless any attempt to execute them. In many of these States the fugitive is discharged from service or labor claimed, and in none of them has the State Government complied with the stipulation made in the Constitution. The State of New Jersey, at an early day, passed a law in conformity with her constitutional obligation; but the current of anti-slavery feeling has led her more recently to enact laws which render inoperative the remedies provided by her own law and by the laws of Congress. In the State of New York even the right of transit for a slave has been denied by her tribunals; and the States of Ohio and Iowa have refused to surrender to justice fugitives charged with murder, and with inciting servile insurrection in the State of Virginia. Thus the constituted compact has been deliberately broken and disregarded by the non-slaveholding States, and the consequence follows that South Carolina is released from her obligation.
-South Carolina Causes of secession


Many northern states nullified the fugitive slave laws or passed liberty laws that nullified the federal law. Wisconsin nullified the law supreme court law.

“Resolved, That this assumption of jurisdiction by the federal judiciary, in the said case, and without process, is an act of undelegated power, and therefore without authority, void, and of no force. Resolved, That the government, formed by the Constitution of the United States was not the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; but that, as in all other cases of compact among parties having no common judge, each party has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measure of redress... that the general government is the exclusive judge of the extent of the powers delegated to it, stop nothing short of despotism, since the discretion of those who administer the government, and not the Constitution, would be the measure of their powers; that the several states which formed that instrument, being sovereign and independent, have the unquestionable right to judge of its infraction; and that a positive defiance of those sovereignties, of all Unauthorized acts done or attempted to be done under color of that instrument, is the rightful remedy.”

"Jeffersonianism still prevailed in the minds of most Americans but was all but snuffed out by Lincolns war"
-Thomas J Dilorenzo the rel Lincoln


States rights held the federal government in check and held it to only what it was granted to do in the constitution. So from the American revolution until The civil war, you had the same constitutional republic. The states doing the self governing in there state sovereignty.

From Union to a Consolidated Nation

”The several states bound loosely in a federal union under a weak central government into a new nation forged by the fires of war”
-James McPherson Battle cry of Freedom Oxford U Press

“In saving the union, I have destroyed the Republic.”
-Abraham Lincoln

“Before the war a union a collection of states... after the war we began to speak of a nation”
-Ken Burns

“Before the war, it was said "the United States are." Grammatically, it was spoken that way and thought of as a collection of independent states. And after the war, it was always "the United States is," as we say today without being self-conscious at all. And that sums up what the war accomplished. It made us an "is."
- Shelby Foote author of “The Civil War: A Narrative.”


After the civil war meaningful states rights ended, and our constitutional republic along with it. Lincoln and the civil war began a new American empire that said states and the people, no longer decided their fate, were no longer sovereign, and no longer self governing people [a principle the American revolution was fought for] but were now subject to the almighty federal government. Who was willing to force the people into its mold, or destroy them. Walt Witman said the result of the war was “Consent to our mandates or be shot.” A major transformation from the founders view that “governments are instituted among men” to protects man's unalienable God given rights and liberty.

The war “Destroyed voluntary union of the founders and made all Americans servants rather than masters of their own government... transformed the American government from a constitutional republic to a consolidated empire”
-Thomas Dilorenzo author of The Real Lincoln and Lincoln Unmasked

“States rights was suppressed by force, and the American idea of consent of the governed was replaced by the European idea of obedience to the state”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire


Lincolns northern opponent Stephen Douglas said of Lincolns political goals as wanting to impose “On the nation a uniformity of local laws and institutions and a moral homogeneity dictated by a central government” That election was said by historians to be a contest between “One consolidated empire [ Federalist/Whigs] and “confederacy of sovereign and equal states of Jefferson and Jackson”, “Lincoln goes for consolidation and uniformity in our government while I go for maintaining the confederation of the sovereign states.” said Douglas. The changes came fast, just a few years after the war Harvard professor George Tickmon stated “It does not seem to me as if I were living in the country in which I was born.”

“State sovereignty died at Appomattox”
-Supreme Court Justice Salmon P Chase 1864-73

“States rights, which prior to 1860 had been an important northern belief as southern. Were overturned by Lincolns war
-Dean Sprague Freedom under Lincoln

“By military conquest, they created a new America that superseded the old union of the fathers and put us on the course that we follow today. It was certainly America but it was a new version that essentially repudiated the founders”
-Clyde Wilson professor of History University of South Carolina

“[After the war] the old decentralized federal republic became a new national polity that taxed the people directly, created an internal revenue bureau to collect these taxes, expanded the jurisdiction of federal courts, established a national currency and a national banking structure. The United States went to war in 1861 to preserve the Union; it emerged from war in 1865 having created a nation. Before 1861 the two words "United States" were generally used as a plural noun: "The United States are a republic." After 1865 the United States became a singular noun. The loose union of states became a nation”
-James M. McPherson

“To nationalize as much as possible, even currency, so as to make men love country first before their states, all private interest, local interests, all banking interests, the interests of individuals everything should be subordinate now to the interests of the government”
-Senator John Sherman of Ohio


Changes to the Constitution

“The civil war changed who we are. It made everything different”
--Dennis Frye Chief Historian at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

“St George Tucker authored “A view of the constitution of the united states” the dominate view of the federal government. as a limited, delegated agent of the sovereign people of the several states, and not the judge of the extant of its own powers, was buried by the outcome of the civil war”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire


The civil war marked the beginnings of an all powerful federal government in America, something the founding fathers did all in their powers to stop. With the Lincoln administration and with the passing of the 14th15th amendment soon after the war. We moved further to a more centralized government and denied states sovereignty. It destroyed the concept of delegated and reserved powers, gone was the concept of government authority voluntary from the people. It changed America from a constitution of states to promote common interest, to a national cohesion controlling states by a centralized government.

“The original constitution and the current system of centralized and oppressive federalism...A major, fundamental change had occurred in our government”
-Walter and James Kennedy The South was Right

“A great centralizing force has been set in motion”
-Leonard Curry
 

11 of the 12 antebellum amendments limited federal powers. 6 of the next 7 would increase federal power at the exspence of the states as the political power shifted from south to north. In antebellum America each state acted for the most part as its own country. People saw themselves as citizens of the state first, country second. Under Lincoln it is said the reverse happened. Northern states objected as well to this transformation as new Jersey said of the amendments and changes in government philosophy

“Transfers to congress the whole control of the right of suffrage in the state.. a power which they [the states] have never been willing to surrender to the general government, and which was reserved to the states as a fundamental principle on which the constitution itself was constructed the principles of self government”

Later the federal government would take more power from the states with the passing of the 17th amendment, it was said than we went from a complex republic to a simple republic. Today the tenth amendment is completely ignored. Senators instead of being appointed by the states, know do the bidding of fund raisers from around the country and political party allies in D.C

“The civil war called forth a new constitutional order...the principles of this legal regime are so radically different from our original constitution drafted in 1787, that they deserve to be reorganized as a second American constitution”
-Columbia University Law Professor George R Fletcher
 

You will not be able to find any historian who will claim the government we are under today in America, is similar to that of Americans under the antebellum government.

“Today's federal government is considerably at odds with that envisioned by the framers of the constitution”
-John Olin George Mason University

“Many think our present federal government is the same one our founders fathers established. Nothing could be further from the truth....after the [civil war].... government power over the people underwent a radical change in the limits of government authority”
-James and Walter Kennedy The South Was Right

“Union victory in the war destroyed the southern vision of America and ensured that the northern vison would become the American vision. Until 1861, however, it was the north that was out of the mainstream, not the south”
-James McPherson Battle Cry of freedom


Supreme Court Reigns Supreme

“…the opinion which gives to the judges the right to decide what laws are constitutional and what not, not only for themselves in their own sphere of action but for the Legislature and Executive also in their spheres, would make the Judiciary a despotic branch.”
– Thomas Jefferson

“The war between the states established.. this principle, that the federal government is, through its courts, the final judge of its own powers”
-President Woodrow Wilson

“The federal government made itself the sole arbitrator of constitutionality, through the supreme court. Not surprisingly the federal government has used this role to decide that there are in fact no limits to its power. Consequentially Americans are no longer sovereign over their government... they fought a war of secession against just such an empire. To than turn around and create a similar empire of their own would have been the height of absurdity”
-Thomas J Dilorenzo Lincoln Unmasked


In the antebellum period the supreme court did not have the final say in any matter but was to simply judge its opinion. To imagine the founders as fighting the largest military in the world [Great Britain] to create a new government to protect life and liberty to than entrust everyone's liberty to a few politically appointed judges stretches the imagination. There was no three coequal branches. [ Won't be found anywhere in constitution] In antebellum America judges could not create policy, it had nor authority to enforce its rulings, they did not have lifetime appointments, were not independent, and did not have final say on constitutionality of a law. As the federalist papers say the legislative has the most authority and the Judiciary “Is beyond comparison the weakest of the three departments of power....it may be truly said to have neither force nor will.” When President Jackson was informed the supreme court decision went against his policy he said “Thank you for your opinion, but my opinion is different and equally valid.” The sovereign states courts had the right to review and judge federal court rulings and law when they overstepped and could override unconstitutional rulings.

“To consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions [is] a very dangerous doctrine indeed, and one which would place us under the despotism of an oligarchy.”
– Thomas Jefferson letter to William C. Jarvis, 1820


With No Check on Federal Government From the States = Rapid Growth and Power of Federal Government

“When all government domestic and forighn in little as in great things shall be drawn to Washington as the source of all power. It will render powerless the checks provided of one government [states] on another, and will become as vegal and oppressive as the government which we have separated”
-Thomas Jefferson

“The US government has grown into a monstrous tyrannical body that would not even by reorganized by its founders”
-Lochlainn Seabrook The Constitution Of The Confederate States Of America Explained

“If we had been able to maintain the real union of sovereign states founded by our fathers, than there would not be, could not be, the imperial central state that we suffer under today”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire


With the death of state sovereignty and transformation of the government by Lincoln. The federal government know has sole power to interpret its own power and forcing the states and American people to comply as it has no other authority. Not only have the states been reduced and put under authority of the federal government, but the 9th and 10th amendments are ignored almost completely in today's politics. Without that check on government, our checks and balances and separation of powers can only slow the federal expansion. With all power at the capital, elites and interest groups control politicians to their bidding. Than you end up with self serving politicians instead of servants of we the people. The constitution would be helpless against a centralized power. The true original conservative political party that was once the dominate party in America, Jeffersonian democracy is all but gone in American politics.

“The war . . . has tended, more than any other event in the history of the country to militate against the Jeffersonian idea, that “the best government is that which governs least.”
-Illinois Governor Richard Yates, January 2, 1865

“Lincoln...undermined the constitutional safeguards of freedom as he opened the way to centralized government with all its political evils”
-Edmund Wilson
 

With no check from the states, President Lincoln violated the constitution in multiple ways, ran up 2.5 billion in national dept, distributed public lands, printed national currency, instituted a national bank, “Standardized fiscal transactions across state lines for the first time”

[To help conform the public to go along with national banking Lincoln added a 10% tax to state banks to help impose a national bank monopoly [The power to tax is the power to destroy] and hired Jay Cooke to use newspapers ads to attack state chartered banks, so national bank would dominate. Those who supported national banking such as Senator John Sherman of Ohio [Brother of General Sherman] said “the permanently increased government power embodied in the bill,” would foster “a sentiment of nationality.” This “A nationalized money supply helped transform America from a constitutional republic to an empire”] collected numerous forms of taxes “Taxes on everything imaginable” From perfume, playing cards to bowling to going to the theater , instituted a income tax, created the bureau of internal revenue [ Early IRS with 7,000 employees in 63] created the department of agricultural, instituted a federal draft, facilitated the industrial revolution in America at the exspence of agrarian lifestyle, laid massive rail, founded the transcontinental railroad, gave 58 million acres to rail companies etc.

“Furry of new laws, regulations, and bureaucracies created by president Lincoln and the republican party”
-Thomas J Dilorenzo

“the republican dominated congress passed a series of measures that transformed the national economic landscape for all time....significtley expanded the role and fiscal reach of the government and helped create a national economy that dwarfed its predecessors...When Lincoln took office, the main role of the federal government was to deliver mail. The government also foreign policy, defended the frontier with a small army and collected import duties, but primarily Washington was a post office..by the end of the war, the government supported an army of a million men, a national debt of 2.5 billion, distributed public lands, printed a national currency, and collected an array of internal taxes...with the south absent....republicans passed the pacific railway act...created a country more closely resembling a national state than a dispersed region...the Lincoln administration gave away 158 million acres to railroads, passage for the first time in american history of a progressive income tax raising 55 million during the war, the government also floated large bond issues, printed 150 million I greenbacks. The national bank act of 1863 resurrected the Hamiltonian idea of a national banking system... This transformation in national power overshadowed the liberation of four million slaves in terms of its long range impact on all Americans”
- David Goldfeild War is good for Business Americas civil war Magazine

[The civil war was] “The fiery crucible which the old nation was melted down, and out of which modern America was poured”
-Historian William Hess


“In the American government system states rights and liberty could not be separated”
-Clyde Wilson Nullification Reclaiming consent of the Governed

“Lincoln...undermined the constitutional safeguards of freedom as he opened the way to centralized government with all its political evils”
-Edmund Wilson

“Nip the shoots of arbitrary power in the bud, is the only maxim which can ever preserve the liberties of any people. When the people give way, their deceivers, betrayers, and destroyers press upon them so fast, that there is no resisting afterwards. The nature of the encroachment upon the American constitution is such, as to grow every day more and more encroaching. Like a cancer, it eats faster and faster every hour. The revenue creates pensioners, and the pensioners urge for more revenue. The people grow less steady, spirited, and virtuous, the seekers more numerous and more corrupt, and every day increases the circles of their dependents and expectants, until virtue, integrity, public spirit, simplicity, and frugality, become the objects of ridicule and scorn, and vanity, luxury, foppery, selfishness, meanness, and downright venality swallow up the whole society. “
– John Adams, Novanglus Letters, 1774

“The primary result of the Republican Party victory was permanent instalment of Hamilton’s blessings—a national debt, a protected market for industrialists, and a collusion between bankers and politicians”
-Clyde Wilson Lies my Teacher told me



Deification of the State

“The people were no longer the center, the government was”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire


Starting with Lincoln and following generations of politicians led to what professor Delorenzo calls the “Deification of the state.” The civil war started in America the philosophy that the federal government is the ultimate authority. This has led to rapid growth in the federal government, because there is no higher authority, than the government thinks itself god. There is nothing it cannot touch. It can take away any right from anyone. It thinks it must not just solve all the ills in the country, it must control all modes of behavior and set its own standards. It will regulate the lives to conform to its own image that is beneficial to itself, resulting in more power to itself. People became servants of the state rather than the government servants of its citizens.

“Liberty became less important than the well being of government”
-Al Benson Jr and Walter Kennedy Lincolns Marxists


This is in drastic contrast to the founders who's view was Governments are instituted among men to protect those unalienable rights that come from a higher authority than man [government] that is god. The founders constantly acknowledged that biblical higher power that they were accountable to. Man was not the ultimate authority in fact all men were created equal. This philosophy that reorganizes a creator, produces a limited government. Government is not the ultimate authority but is to protect all citizens god given liberty. It also believes that man should alter and abolish a government that is destructive to those rights of the people. This was stomped out by the civil war, the government is ultimate authority, not the citizens, nor even god.

“The civil war was that the right to govern is paramount over the right to live, that man is made for government, rather than that government is made for man, and that for men to claim the right of self government is to deserve and incure the death penalty”
-Charles L.C minor The real Lincoln 1928

"What we call liberty our founders called bondage...we have not freed the slaves we have extended the plantation, know, we are all slaves"
-Peter Marshall JR The Great War Debate

Lincoln “Remade America”
-Gary Wills

“Overthrow the present form of Federal-republican government, and to establish a strong centralized government in its stead...national banks, bankrupt laws, a vast and permanent public debt, high tariffs, heavy direct taxation, enormous expenditure, gigantic and stupendous peculation . . . No more state lines, no more state governments, but a consolidated monarchy or vast centralized military despotism.” “instead of crushing out the rebellion,” the “effort has been to crush out the spirit of liberty” in the Northern states.
-Northern Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham D-Ohio spoke of the reason for Lincolns war 1863


Yet with government run education, the American people

“Have been taught to celebrate this betrayal of the founding fathers..The vast bulk of Americans proceed through twelve years of government funded education [by an interesting coincidence] teaches them all about the wonders of federal government, how lost they'd be without it, and how foolish it would be to worry that the constitution might not authorize most of what it does. Portrayed as a benevolent force innocently pursuing the common good....cost less benefits granted by selfless crusaders for justice”
-Tomas Woods Nullification How to Resist federal tyranny in the 21st Century

“The American public was also relentlessly propagandized by the government and its private sector accomplices, such as Jay Cooke, into believing that it could now look to the federal government for solutions to its problems. This made it easier for future generations of politicians to convince the American public to acquiesce in further expansions of government and further restrictions on personal liberty that would have caused the founding fathers to reach for their swords”
-Thomas Dilorenzo The Real Lincoln



References

-Virginia/Kentucky resolutions 1798 http://billofrightsinstitute.org/founding-documents/primary-source-documents/virginia-and-kentucky-resolutions/
-James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions 1800 http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/v1ch8s42.html
-Calhoun Ft Hill Address
http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/fort-hill-address/
-AN EXPOSITION Of the Virginia Resolutions of 1798, Judge Abel P. Upshur
http://dallypost.com/tag/judge-abel-p-upshur/
-Nullification How to Resist Federal Tyranny in the 21st Century Thomas E woods Regnery Publishing 2010
-The South was Right James Ronald Kennedy and Walter Donald Kennedy Pelican 2014 reprint
-Nullification Reclaiming consent of the Governed Clyde Wilson Shotwell Publishing Columbia South Carolina 2016
-Lincolns Marxists Al Benson Jr and Walter Kennedy Pelican Press 2011
-The Real Lincoln Thomas J Dilorenzo Three Rivers press NY NY 2002 -Lincoln Unmasked what your not suppose to know about Dishonest Abe Thomas J Dilorenzo Three rivers Press Crown Forum 2006 -The Yankee Problem An American dilemma Clyde N Wilson Shotwell Publishing Columbia South Carolina 2016 -The Constitution Of The Confederate States Of America Explained A Clause By Clause Study Of The Souths Magna Carta Lochlainn Seabrook Sea Raven Press 2012 -Secession Acts of the Thirteen Confederate States http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/secessionacts.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/
-From Union to Empire essays in the Jeffersonian Tradition Clyde Wilson The Foundation for American Education Columbia South Carolina 2003
-Myths of American slavery Walter D Kennedy 2003 Pelican publishing company
---------------
“The CSA congress can have no such power over states officers. The state governments are an essential part of the political system, upon the separate and independent sovereignty of the states the foundation of the confederacy”
-1864 Virginia supremeCourt

1stvermont
Vermont, VT, USA
top 50
E-4 Specialist


Posts: 82

Re: Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of Hist
Posted on: 11/23/2017 6:12:20 AM
Lincoln the Tyrant

“Dictatorship played a decisive role in the north's successful effort to maintain the union by force of arms... one man was the government of the united states...Lincoln was a great dictator... this great constitutional dictator was self appointed”
-Historian Clinton Rossiter, Constitutional Dictatorship


President Lincoln did not lead the country from within the confines of presidential power within the constitution. Lincoln disregarded the constitution and ruled America rather than led America. Lincoln did not really have a presidency, he violated separation of powers and made himself a dictator. He is called by various historians “an uncompromising dictator." “a dictator from the standpoint of American Constitutional law and practice” others referring to his presidency as the “Lincoln dictatorship” others to his administration as a “Temporary dictatorship” James Ford Rhodes a defender of Lincoln called him a dictator. A song titled “Abe the dictator” was used by northern democrats during the 1864 election.

Maryland

Maryland was under complete military control. Lincoln would not allow Maryland to even discuss the question of succession. Lincoln suspended writ of Hadus Corpus arresting and imprisoned without due process legislators, mayors, newspaper editors, citizens and publishers to prevent a vote on succession in Maryland. Even the grandson of Francis Scott Key [Star spangled Banner author] was thrown into prison at Fort McHenry. When this was declared unconstitutional [only congress can suspend writ of Hadus corpus] by Chief Justice Taney, Lincoln issued an arrest warrant for Taney and Lincoln ignored the ruling. General Banks was sent to search house by house for pro peace or succession legislators. General Butler said he would bombard Annapolis if they met to discuss succession. They used color coded ballots so pro peace votes in Maryland could be spotted and arrested. He shut down and imprison newspaper editors and newspapers in the state.

The North, Home of the Free and Brave?

“This amazing disregard for the...constitution was considered by no one legal”
-Historian Clinton Rossiter


Throughout the north Lincoln imprisoned 13,000 political enemies, intimidated anyone who spoke out against Lincolns policies and did a great harm to freedom of speech. He Jailed anyone suspected of confederate loyalty with no trial. The jails were used to

“Establish the fact that the federal government was the greatest power in the nation”
-Dean Sprague Freedom Under Lincoln


Lincoln confiscated private property and firearms from civilians in border states violating the second amendment, deported Ohio congressmen Clement L. Vallandigham for speaking out against him.

“Congressmen who willfully take actions during wartime to damage morale should be arrested, exiled, or hanged”
-Abraham Lincoln


He introduced the first military draft. Ministers were arrested for not saying a prayer for the president in church service as required by the Lincoln administration. He invaded southern states without congress consent, and blockaded ports without declaring war. In 1863 the Lincoln administration passed the “Idenmity act” this put Lincoln, his cabinet, and the military above the law. It never got enough votes to pass so it was simply declared law.

Free Elections and Freedom of the press?

"You will take position by military force, of the printing establishments of the New York world and journal of commerce...and prohibit any further publication thereof...you are therefore commanded forthwith to arrest and imprison...the editors, proprietors and publishers of the aforesaid newspapers"
-Lincoln to General John Dix may 18 1864


Lincoln participated in rigging northern elections, not just in Maryland. In the 1864 elections New York used colored ballets [red and blue] so federal soldiers could harass and prevent democratic voters in the state “Under the protection of Federal bayonets, New York went Republican by seven thousand votes.” He also unconstitutionally Created west Virginia for the 64 election. Lincoln censored the telegraphs, shut down hundreds of newspapers and imprisoned editors who were critical of his policies or the war to control how people viewed the war and his policies.

Lincolns Enemies the South and the Native Americans

“Lincoln was an even worse tyrant than George the third was”
-Thomas Dilorenzo The Real Lincoln


It was Lincolns opinion that the south had no legal right to succeed and he refused to recognize the south as a separate country, therefore they were still citizens of the united states. The north fought a war that would not allow the south to leave, yet denied them voting rights and representation after the war, breaking the union, the very thing they said they wished to save. Lincoln also gutted the 9/10 amendments.

During the war in the south Lincoln violated the Geneva conventions rules for war. Had entire towns destroyed, civilians murdered, animals killed, food taken, houses Burt down, waged war against non combatants civilians, confiscated private property, had hundreds of priests and minsters imprisoned for not saying prayers for Abraham Lincoln in occupied southern territory, hundreds of churches were burned. He denied occupied south the right to vote “government by the people” and medicines were withheld by union blockade. He Forced out southern newspapers and implemented northern newspapers to control free speech.

Lincoln viewed native Americans as savages and put General John Pope in charge of a war with native Americans who said “It is my purpose to utterly exterminate the Sioux... they are to be treated as maniacs or wild beats, and by no means as people with whom treaties or contracts can be made.” Dec 26 1862 Lincoln ordered the largest mass exsectuion in American history 39 native Americans.

The Great Centralizer

“Lincoln...undermined the constitutional safeguards of freedom as he opened the way to centralized government with all its political evils”
-Edmund Wilson

“A great centralizing force has been set in motion”
-Leonard Curry


Some especially today, will view the following as “good” and a reason to love Lincoln, others such as myself strongly disagree. Lincoln is known by various historians as the “Great Centralizer” and Others call him the founding father of big government. Some see Lincoln along with Lenin as joining the impulse to centralize government in the mid 1800's. Lincoln was of the the Clay American System consisted of mercantilism, protectionism, the centralization of governmental power, and inflationism. His opponent Stephen Douglas said of Lincolns political goals as wanting to impose “On the nation a uniformity of local laws and institutions and a moral homogeneity dictated by a central government.” That election was said by historians to be a contest between “One consolidated empire and “confederacy of sovereign and equal states of Jefferson and Jackson”, “Lincoln goes for consolidation and uniformity in our government,” Douglas charged, “while I go for maintaining the confederation of the sovereign states.” Lincoln sought to consolidate power in the central federal government.

“My politics are short and sweet...I am in favor of a national bank...in favor of the internal improvements system and a high protective tariff”
-Abraham Lincoln 1832


Taxation

“Furry of new laws, regulations, and bureaucracies created by president Lincoln and the republican party”
-Thomas J Dilorenzo


Before Lincoln was elected the average citizen only had contact with the federal government for mail. But after Lincoln “every citizen now had direct contact with, and felt the direct influence of, the federal government. A great centralizing force had been set into motion. . . . The needs of the government had resulted in a drastic redrawing of the federal tax base.” He created an early version of the IRS with 7,000 federal employees, ran up 2.5 billion in debt, instituted the first income tax, imposed “sin taxes” on alcohol and tobacco “Taxes on everything imaginable” From perfume, playing cards to bowling to going to the theater. Taxes were so high that “Never again would it be contracted to its prewar scope.” And with Lincoln “Taxation on a scale never before seen in the US was imposed on the population.” laid massive rail, founded the transcontinental railroad, gave 58 million acres to rail companies. created the department of agricultural Lincoln sighed into law 10 tariff raising bills and introduced massive corporate-welfare schemes.


National Banking

“To nationalize as much as possible, even currency, so as to make men love country first before their states, all private interest, local interests, all banking interests, the interests of individuals everything should be subordinate now to the interests of the government”
-Senator John Sherman of Ohio


The government went deep into debt because of the war and this allowed Lincoln to add his wanted central banking, the motive that got him involved in politics in the first place. He instituted national banks with the ability to print greenbacks not backed by gold or silver. Of course not everyone in the north wanted this as congressmen Powell stated

“It utterly to destroy all the rights of the states. It is asserting a power which if carried out to its logical result would enable the national congress to destroy every institution of the states and cause all power to be consolidated and concentrated here” [D.C ]
-Kentucky democrat Lazarous Powell


To help conform the public to go along with national banking Lincoln added a 10% tax to state banks to help impose a national bank monopoly [The power to tax is the power to destroy] and hired Jay Cooke to use newspapers ads to attack state chartered banks, so national bank would dominate. Those who supported national banking such as Senator John Sherman of Ohio [Brother of General Sherman] said “the permanently increased government power embodied in the bill,” would foster “a sentiment of nationality.” This “A nationalized money supply helped transform America from a constitutional republic to an empire”

“The American public was also relentlessly propagandized by the government and its private sector accomplices, such as Jay Cooke, into believing that it could now look to the federal government for solutions to its problems. This made it easier for future generations of politicians to convince the American public to acquiesce in further expansions of government and further restrictions on personal liberty that would have caused the founding fathers to reach for their swords”
-Thomas Dilorenzo The Real Lincoln


Honest Abe? Lincoln the Master Politician

"Lincoln was a master politician, which means he was a consummate conniver, manipulator, and liar."
-Murray Rothbard

“Those that new Lincoln best, never called him honest Abe”
-Richard Smith Presidential Historian George Mason University


Part of what is believed about the Lincoln myth is Abraham Lincoln was an honest, good person. The Lincoln myth in some ways started with Lincolns public image. The historical Lincoln was a master politician who used people for his own power and agenda. He was a political opportunist who drifted with the tide “a quest for office” He would lie and mislead people to convince them to support him.

“Lincoln was Americas first modern politician”
-Al Benson Jr and Walter Kennedy Lincolns Marxists


Described as an expert politician able to condone and condemn at the same time. He would say yes, and no, and make listeners believe his intentions were good, a modern politician. His opponent in 1858 Stephen Douglass stated Lincoln “Can trim his principles any way in any section, so as to secure votes.” The Chicago daily democrat press said Lincoln “Provided a kind of loophole for escape if anything he said should not satisfy all kinds of views.”

“There is a grand canyon between what Lincoln said and what he did...He ignored the Constitution when he wanted to and hide behind it when he wanted to.”
-Lerone Bennett Forced into Glory Abraham Lincolns White dream


Abolitionist who sought to bring Lincoln to their side well knew Lincoln was a politician as Wendall Phillips stated “Lincoln is a Pawn on the political chessboard. With fair effort, we may soon change him for a knight, bishop or queen, and sweep the board.” At the age of 45 Lincoln first spoke out against the extension of slavery out west. He “Rode to glory on the public waves” as the north turned against the Kansas/Nebraska act. Lincoln “reinvented himself” and for the first time he spoke against slavery. Had public opinion never turned against slavery, its likely the master politician never would have. Even his own cabinet did not think him a great president.

“In every single stand he took, which superficially might appear to be an original attitude, either substantial or major groups had passed that point before him, and it was only the support that they had gathered and their potential strength that enticed Lincoln to the position”
-Thaddeus Stevens Fredrick Douglass 1934


Lincolns Public Image

“Shrewd manufacturer of his public image”
-Richard Smith presidential historian George mason University


Lincoln was able to Cunningly shape his own public image. He new how to sell himself, he would create a dishonest image of himself to sell to the public. For more see National geographic Top Secrets about Abraham Lincoln

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZWz4iPJZLg

Lincoln Rail Splitter or Rich Railroad Lobbyist


“Lincoln was what today would be called a “lobbyist” for the railroad industry”
-Thomas J Dilorenzo Lincoln Unmasked


While running for president Lincoln sold himself as a poor country rail splitter. In reality Lincoln was a rich powerful rail lobbyist and lawyer. He was a corporate trial lawyer, his clients were from every major railroad cooperation in the west. He subsidized $12 million tax in Illinois to rail corporations that ended in a big failure. But helped him politically become known as a railroad lobbyist. He was a cooperate insider and traveled with his own private rail car with a free pass, around the Midwest.

Lincolns powerful industrial interests were always present at political councils. 1862 Lincoln used a bill for the Union Pacific Railroad Tax payer subsidized to pay off northern business for their support of him and the republican party[Republican party still today allied with major industry]. He used government subsidized railroad that involving ethnic cleansing and removal of the great plains Indians from their land to make way for the rail road.

Lincolns personality

“Lincoln was not a social man, loved no man much, was more or less selfish”
-William Herdon

“No strong emotional feelings for any person mankind or thing”
-Judge Davis Eighth Judicial Circuit


Lincoln was described as selfish, manipulative, cold and said to use men like tools. Elizabeth Edwards Lincolns sister in law said Lincoln was “a cold man” with “no heart.” Law partner John Stuart said “there was no part of his nature which drew him to do acts of gratitude to his friends.” Lincoln suffered with depression and took medicine for it. He was quick tempered, prone to ramblings and outburst of anger.

Lincolns Assassination

After shooting Lincoln the Virginian Booth cried out the Virginia motto of “Sic Semper Tyrannis” meaning thus always the tyrants. This famous quote was selected from an earlier assassination of Julius Caesar by Marcus Brutus due to Caesar's role in transforming the roman republic into an empire. Similar in the way Lincoln transformed the American republic into an empire.

Lincoln an American Tyrant

"Lincoln and his administration committed every one of the acts of tyranny for witch Jefferson condemned the king [declaration of independence] on this score Lincoln was an even worse tyrant than George the third was.”
-Thomas Dilorenzo The Real Lincoln


In chapter 6 of Dilorezo's the Real Lincoln he goes through each of the grievances in the declaration of Independence showing Lincoln was guilty of every one of the causes of secession for the 13 colonies.

---------------
“The CSA congress can have no such power over states officers. The state governments are an essential part of the political system, upon the separate and independent sovereignty of the states the foundation of the confederacy”
-1864 Virginia supremeCourt

George
Centre Hastings, ON, Canada
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major
Posts: 5704

Re: Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of Hist
Posted on: 11/23/2017 7:13:07 AM
Any chance that you could make your point in a succinct manner and define the scope of the discussion?

I am not sure how many people are going to take the time to read this lengthy tome.

Cheers,

George

1stvermont
Vermont, VT, USA
top 50
E-4 Specialist


Posts: 82

Re: Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of Hist
Posted on: 11/23/2017 7:17:51 AM

Quote:
Any chance that you could make your point in a succinct manner and define the scope of the discussion?

I am not sure how many people are going to take the time to read this lengthy tome.

Cheers,

George
--George


I shall try. Lincoln did not save the Constitution but violated it more than any other president [that is saying allot] and repudiated the founders ideas of the union and a decentralized general government held in check by the constitutional powers delegated it by the states. Instead he transformed that union into the republican version of a centralized nation disregarding the Constitution and our political system.Oh, and he was an american tyrant. In short he


The war “Destroyed voluntary union of the founders and made all Americans servants rather than masters of their own government... transformed the American government from a constitutional republic to a consolidated empire”
-Thomas Dilorenzo author of The Real Lincoln and Lincoln Unmasked

“[After the war] the old decentralized federal republic became a new national polity that taxed the people directly, created an internal revenue bureau to collect these taxes, expanded the jurisdiction of federal courts, established a national currency and a national banking structure. The United States went to war in 1861 to preserve the Union; it emerged from war in 1865 having created a nation. Before 1861 the two words "United States" were generally used as a plural noun: "The United States are a republic." After 1865 the United States became a singular noun. The loose union of states became a nation”
-James M. McPherson

“States rights was suppressed by force, and the American idea of consent of the governed was replaced by the European idea of obedience to the state”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire

“The people were no longer the center, the government was”
-Clyde Wilson From Union to Empire

“The civil war was that the right to govern is paramount over the right to live, that man is made for government, rather than that government is made for man, and that for men to claim the right of self government is to deserve and incure the death penalty”
-Charles L.C minor The real Lincoln 1928

"What we call liberty our founders called bondage...we have not freed the slaves we have extended the plantation, know, we are all slaves"
-Peter Marshall JR The Great War Debate

Lincoln “Remade America”
-Gary Wills

“Overthrow the present form of Federal-republican government, and to establish a strong centralized government in its stead...national banks, bankrupt laws, a vast and permanent public debt, high tariffs, heavy direct taxation, enormous expenditure, gigantic and stupendous peculation . . . No more state lines, no more state governments, but a consolidated monarchy or vast centralized military despotism.” “instead of crushing out the rebellion,” the “effort has been to crush out the spirit of liberty” in the Northern states.
-Northern Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham D-Ohio spoke of the reason for Lincolns war 1863
---------------
“The CSA congress can have no such power over states officers. The state governments are an essential part of the political system, upon the separate and independent sovereignty of the states the foundation of the confederacy”
-1864 Virginia supremeCourt

Michigan Dave
Muskegon, Michigan, MI, USA
top 5
E-9 Cmd Sgt Major


Posts: 2960

Re: Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of Hist
Posted on: 11/23/2017 5:08:22 PM
1st VT,

You must be president of the Abraham Lincoln Fan Club!!!!?

(you do know most Americans feel Abe was our best President!)

As far as breaking with the Constitution, Lincoln was justified because he was trying to save the Union,

Confederate President Jefferson Davis went against the Constitution far more than Abe did!?
---------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."

1stvermont
Vermont, VT, USA
top 50
E-4 Specialist


Posts: 82

Re: Did Lincoln save the Constitution? Responding to the PC Version of Hist
Posted on: 11/23/2017 7:42:41 PM

Quote:
1st VT,

You must be president of the Abraham Lincoln Fan Club!!!!?

(you do know most Americans feel Abe was our best President!)

As far as breaking with the Constitution, Lincoln was justified because he was trying to save the Union,

Confederate President Jefferson Davis went against the Constitution far more than Abe did!?
--Michigan Dave


Lol, not the biggest fan no.


Yes i agree many think him the best as I did as well just 10 years ago. I was just telling my wife a local paper did a contest and who the best president was, i was asked and said Lincoln because he ended slavery and saved the union. This was before I started to in depth study the political side of the war. But I was subject to the winner writes the history and when the republicans start unconstitutionally getting involved with education as started during the civil war and after, it is no wonder they make Lincoln the hero.

http://www.ronpaulforums.com/showthread.php?513086-Southern-Agrarians-did-America-Lose-its-Liberty-When-it-Lost-its-Agrarian-Roots

“Have been taught to celebrate this betrayal of the founding fathers..The vast bulk of Americans proceed through twelve years of government funded education [by an interesting coincidence] teaches them all about the wonders of federal government, how lost they'd be without it, and how foolish it would be to worry that the constitution might not authorize most of what it does. Portrayed as a benevolent force innocently pursuing the common good....cost less benefits granted by selfless crusaders for justice”
-Tomas Woods Nullification How to Resist federal tyranny in the 21st Century


I would say it is your opinion he was justified in violating the Constitution, i think war is the perfect time for the Constitution to matter. It is there so in case the government decided it is justified to violate it, they cannot. But with a tyrant it matters not.


I am no fan of jeff davis's actions during the war [at least after the first year] and neither were many in the south. It caused the south to rightly ask what is the difference between Richmond and d.c. the original csa government i love, but in practice during the war, not so much.
---------------
“The CSA congress can have no such power over states officers. The state governments are an essential part of the political system, upon the separate and independent sovereignty of the states the foundation of the confederacy”
-1864 Virginia supremeCourt

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