Member Article: S.M.S. Dresden’s War
by Dr. Christopher M. Jannings
How highly mobile German commerce raiders (light cruisers) performed at sea and met their fate is one of the more compelling and controversial stories of World War I. One such account is that of the S.M.S. Dresden and how it successfully eluded capture or sinking at the hands of a far superior British navy and their allies in 1914-1915. This essay charts the performance of the light cruiser from its prewar position off the eastern coast of Mexico to its scuttling in Chilean national waters on March 15, 1915. It asks: In terms of carrying out cruiser warfare, what expectations did the German navy have for its overseas cruiser squadron at the beginning of the war? Was SMS Dresden under capable command and prepared to take on the role of an independent commerce raider? As the sole survivor of the German East Asian Squadron at the Battle of the Falkland Islands, what determining factors forced its commander, Captain Franz Ludecke, to opt for a strategy of “protracted evasion” over the “spirit of enterprise?” By taking the former action, SMS Dresden successfully avoided enemy contact and forced the British navy and their allies to commit warships to the region that were best served in the North Atlantic. In the process, it continued to pose an immediate threat to British shipping interests in the Far East and South Atlantic.
2011 - Gettysburg Muster Schedule and Registration Information !!!!
November 4th - 6th, 2011
Come and join us this November at Gettysburg! Registration Fee: $30 Single, $40 Family.
Here's the schedule and registration information for the 2011 MHO Gettysburg Muster.
This year's Muster should prove to be one of the best, how can we go wrong with an entire day of Ed Bearss?
Hats off to Chris Army for his hard work arranging the tours.
Member Article: Air Reconnaissance in World War One
by Del Kostka
For most people, the great aces are the most enduring personalities of World War I. Almost 100 years after they blazed across the skies of Europe, names like Richthofen, Bishop, Guynemer and Rickenbacker are still memorialized as the chivalrous "knights of the air". Yet few people today give thought or credence to the pilots and observers of reconnaissance aircraft. Often portrayed as lumbering and defenseless victims of air combat, aerial reconnaissance crews actually made an impact and contribution to the war effort far greater than their glamorized brethren. The accuracy and timeliness of the intelligence they gathered changed the nature of warfare, and the devastating artillery barrages they orchestrated from high above the battlefield accounted for more casualties than any other weapon system of the Great War. Simply put, the reconnaissance aircrew was the most lethal killing machine of World War One.
From Liberation to Confrontation: The U.S. Army and Czechoslovakia 1945 to 1948
by Bryan J. Dickerson
In the closing days of World War II in Europe, soldiers of the U.S. Army were welcomed as
Liberators by crowds of Czech civilians exuberant at being freed from six long years of Nazi
tyranny and occupation. Just three short years later, the relation-ship between the U.S. Army and
Czechoslovakia was dramatically different. Instead of allies, they were now adversaries. Due to
the rapidly changing political situation in central Europe and the emergence of a Cold War between the
United States and the Soviet Union, the U.S. Army in Europe underwent a series of major changes in
mission and structure which culminated with it being forced to assume a combat posture against the very
same country and ally that it had helped liberate from the Nazi Germany in the spring of 1945.
In just three and a half years, the U.S. Army performed the roles of a combat force / liberator,
an occupation force / rebuilder, a police or constabulary force and ultimately, a combat force again in rapid succession.
Jewish Resistance during the Holocaust: Fact or Fiction?
by Abigail Pfeiffer
For close to fifteen years after the Holocaust there was little written about the
resistance of the European Jewish population against the Nazis and their collaborators.
According to Michael Marrus in his article “Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust”
the reason for this is “…most Jews had little stomach for myth-making of any kind
about Jewish resistance in the immediate shock of the war. It was all Jews could
do in the first postwar years to absorb the reality of mass murder on an unimagined
scale…” Only after the shock of the attempted liquidation of the whole population
of European Jews wore off did some solid historiography emerge about Jewish resistance.
The trial of Adolf Eichmann in Israel also prompted more historians to examine Jewish
resistance, especially outside of Israel and Yiddish speaking populations.
Member Article: Betrayed by a Mason? The Tragic Mission of Lieutenant Thomas Boyd
by Michael Karpovage
Moments before deploying on the longest military campaign of the Revolutionary War,
Freemason Thomas Boyd was given a final ultimatum by his repeatedly spurned and
pregnant lover. In front of his superior officers she warned Boyd, a lieutenant
with Morgan’s Rifle Corps of the Continental Army, “If you go off without marrying
me, I hope and pray to the great God of heaven that you will be tortured and cut
to pieces by the savages.” An embarrassed Boyd, his pride tarnished, responded by
drawing his sword and threatening to stab her unless she removed herself. She acquiesced.
Unfortunately for the young lieutenant, he should have heeded her ominous prediction
for that was exactly the fate that befell him.
Member Article: Smoke without fire: A re-examination of the Angel of Mons
by Steve MacGregor
During World War One there was a widespread belief in Britain that some form of
supernatural intervention saved allied troops during the retreat from Mons. Since
the war this event, generally known as the “Angel of Mons” has been variously used
as evidence of supernatural intervention in combat, an example of a collective hallucination
or as an urban myth unwittingly originated by a piece of fiction. The most prosaic
explanation is that the Angel was no more than a misinterpretation of odd cloud
formations seen by weary troops. The only thing that most theories agree on is that
something strange happened during the retreat from Mons in August 1914 and that
this was witnessed by British (and possibly German) troops.
Member Article: Who Killed the Red Baron?
by Steven Wilson
In the skies above Vauz sur Somme, France, April 21, 1918, the highest-scoring ace of World War I was
shot down by enemy fire and died. Almost immediately, his legend was born.
Manfred von Richthofen, forever known in history as "The Red Baron," was credited with 80 air-to-air
victories in World War I. He was chasing victory number 81 at the time of his death. He was 25.
At the time of his shoot down, Canadian Capt. Roy Brown of the Royal Air Force's 209th squadron was
credited with firing the fatal shots that killed the famous aviator. However, recent evidence has
surfaced that indicates the old history books may, in fact, be wrong.
Member Article: Armenian Warriors, Japanese Samurai
by Dr. Armen Ayvazyan
Armenian historiography contains considerable information about ancient and medieval Armenian military ideology.
In the works of fifth century historians Pavstos Buzand and Movses Khorenatzi, the commands and legacy of the Armenian
sparapets (commanders in chief) to their successors articulate in detail the obligations and responsibilities of
Armenian warriors. Their norms of conduct share striking similarities with the system of values of the Japanese samurai
codified during the 16th to 18th centuries, as well as with later medieval West European chivalry of the eight to 14th
“Fight and offer your life for the Armenian World just as your brave forefathers did, consciously sacrificing their lives for this Homeland…”
Benedict Arnold in Canada
by Roger Daene
The summer of 1775 began with the Americans laying siege to Boston. The Battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the severe losses prevented them from being able to lift the siege. To the north, in the Hudson River Valley, a combined force under Captain Benedict Arnold and Colonel Ethan Allen of Vermont, had surprised the British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. Following the capture of Ticonderoga, Arnold led a bold attack on the British fleet on Lake Champlain. He either captured or destroyed all the British ships there. He was soon to prove that these two earlier successes were just portents of future events.
Len Hornbeck Interview, WWII Veteran "D-Day Gate Crasher"
Interview by Tony Welch
Barely recognizable in the false dawn of D-Day, a German grenade skitters across the roadway. Walking directly into its oncoming path is an American paratrooper.
At age 23, Leonard Hornbeck's reflexes have never been sharper. Instinctively, he jumps straight up just as the “potato masher” disappears beneath his combat boots. In that frozen moment of time the grenade explodes between Leonard's legs, propelling him skyward. If the German
soldat who tossed the grenade tried to duplicate his feat – performed in the dark – he would have gone through a case of explosives without coming close.
Interviewing The Interviewer. "Vets Tell All -- He Listens."
Interview by Avery Chalmers
You've been doing World War Two oral histories now -- how many years?"
“Well…in a serious way, since around 1973. I was the first one in my family to serve in the military since the Civil War – a span of ninety years.
Back in the mid-fifties I worked in the same Eighth Naval District headquarters office as Howard Gilmore’s widow. Her husband skippered the submarine
Growler and was the first sub sailor
to be awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. Mrs. Gilmore held an
administrative job with the Navy – guaranteed employment for life. She told me
this story and I’m sure that’s when I first got hooked. She began by saying she
was personally responsible for having sent hundreds of mules to a watery grave.
Mules? Mules in the Navy? Well…I was all ears. It turns out these mules were
rounded up during the war from sharecropper farms throughout the southern
states. Mrs. Gilmore was the project manager and co-ordinated various civilian
contractors whose job it was to purchase, assemble and arrange the mules’
transportation to various war zones in the Pacific where they’d serve as
infantry pack animals.
The 308th Infantry during the Argonne Offensive October 1918
by Kevin Mulberger
During the American involvement in World War I, there were various battles that caught the American public's attention, but none were like the one like the story of the "Lost Battalion". This battalion consisted of about five hundred men of the 308th Infantry of the 77th Division along with attachments from other units. The commander of the 1st Battalion 308th Infantry Regiment was Maj. Charles Whittlesey, a former New York City lawyer. The 308th also consisted of attachments from the 306th Machine Gun Battalion and K Company from the 307th Infantry for their mission. This mission was to capture the Charlevaux Ravine in the Argonne Forest during the Meuse-Argonne offensive in October 1918. The offensive through the Argonne Forest would be a tough battle for the Americans since the Germans had dug themselves in over the last four years. Also the rough terrain would add to the difficulty in any attack in the Argonne. In theory, if the AEF broke through here, they could punch a hole all the way past the main lateral rail line the German Army needed to keep the front supplied. A major break through here would then be catastrophic for the Germans.
Member Article: Battle for the Seaports
by Ruud Bruyns
On January 30 1945 there was a remarkable movie premiere in the French seaport of La Rochelle. The latest German war movie ‘Kolberg’ was displayed for the first time to an audience which consisted of more than 20.000 soldiers, who were besieged by Allied forces since August 1944. This movie, which was shot in full color, was meant to boost morale among the German garrison by setting the siege of Kolberg by the French in 1806 as an example. This was necessary because the Germans were trapped there for almost half year, as were ten of thousands other German soldiers in the ports of France, Belgium and Holland during the autumn of 1944. How was it possible that approximately 200.000 German soldiers were locked up in these ports while the German homeland was bound to be attacked by the Allies? Was it coincidence, or was there a plan behind this set-up?
Member Article: Officers and Gentlemen: Gentlemanly Mystique and Military Effectiveness in the Nineteen-Century British Army
by James A. Shaw
Britain and her army together acted as major forces driving the history of the nineteenth century. The century opened to a Europe consumed in a massive war against Revolutionary, and later Imperial, France, and it closed with the last days of the Victorian era and a British Empire that spanned the entire globe. The enormous economic power of British commerce and industry made the nation a force to be reckoned with in the marketplace, and the peerless Royal Navy ensured Britannia control of whatever seas she wished to sail, but the acquisition and defense of Britain’s extensive land possessions fell to the antiquated, even reactionary, British army.
Member Article: A Turn Too Far: Reconstructing the End of the Battle of the Java Sea
by Del C. Kostka
Attu rises like a jagged stone from the churning waters of the North Pacific. Barren, wind-swept, and shrouded in perpetual fog, the island has little relevance to a world that is barely aware of its existence. Yet in 1943, this obscure wilderness was the scene of an epic battle between resilient Japanese occupiers and an American invasion force who were equally determined to possess the island. It was a battle fought as much against the elements as with an enemy, and where a small and ill-equipped band of US Army combat engineers found themselves squarely in the path of one of the largest Japanese Banzai attacks of World War Two.
Member Article: A Turn Too Far: Reconstructing the End of the Battle of the Java Sea
by Jeffrey R. Cox
The Java Sea campaign has gotten little in the way of analysis in the English-speaking press, and what coverage it has
gotten has largely focused on the role of the crews of individual ships such as the US cruiser
Houston, the Australian cruiser Perth and the British cruiser Exeter, particularly in their futile
efforts to escape the Java Sea, James Hornfischer’s excellent book
Ship of Ghosts being a case in point.
This relative silence is understandable for several reasons. First of all, we lost. Unless the defeat can be used to
bash the United States like Vietnam is, defeats tend to get less play in the media. Furthermore, the territory being
defended was a Dutch colony, which, since the Dutch mainland was under Nazi occupation, was effectively serving as their
homeland, and thus meant much more to the Dutch than the Anglos, who found the campaign small in comparison to their
overall war effort in the Pacific.
Cracking Hitler's Atlantic Wall: The 1st Assault Brigade Royal Engineers on D-Day
When the British and Canadians landed in Normandy on D-Day, June 6, 1944, they
were accompanied by specialized armored vehicles that had the job of removing
German obstacles and mines from the invasion beaches. Developed by the Royal
Engineers and known as Hobart’s Funnies, these unique tanks featured ingenious
innovations--ranging from a giant 290-millimeter mortar to carpet-laying and
bridge-laying devices--to support their mission on D-Day and after. Covering
both the technical development of these engineer vehicles and their combat
deployment, military historian Richard C. Anderson Jr. gives a minute-by-minute
account of D-Day’s early hours on Sword, Juno, and Gold Beaches--the critical
moments when the success of the invasion hinged on whether the assault engineers
could clear a path through a minefield or breach the seawall under withering
fire from entrenched German positions.
Landing craft sank, vehicles bogged down, but the men and their vehicles blasted their way forward and contributed to Allied victory. Anderson also describes D-Day as it unfolded on Omaha and Utah Beaches, where U.S. troops, despite being offered the special vehicles, stormed ashore without them.
Member Article: How Arnhem was Lost around Eindhoven
by Landon McDuff
The Texas Army National Guard has a proud history that has not only influenced but, has come to
define its military culture. It is the purpose of this essay to discuss some of those defining
and controversial moments and remember the heroes that made them so. Texas has traditionally
been committed to the defense of its nation and usually contributes more troops to the U.S.
military than any other state.[i] The Texas Army National Guard traces their beginnings to the
fight for Texas’ independence from Mexico. The spirit of the defenders of the Alamo, and the
victorious men that carried the day on the grounds of San Jacinto, is alive and well in the
hearts of every Texas National Guard soldier and airman. The TXARNG is a state military force
in local operation but trains and fights alongside the federal Army, daubed “Big Army”. They
call themselves “citizen soldiers” because although they have the same training as “Big Army”,
they only serve one weekend out of the month, unless called into active duty.
Member Article: How Arnhem was Lost around Eindhoven
by Ruud Bruyns
A lot of explanations have been written about the failure of Operation Market Garden, better
known as the Battle of Arnhem after the ultimate goal of the operation. In the mainly
English speaking literature there has been very few references to Dutch sources,
while there have been many detailed publications about Market Garden. The most notable are
‘Een andere kijk op de slag om Arnhem’
(Another Perspective on the Battle of Arnhem, 2009) by Peter Berends, and ‘Einddoel Maas’
(End Goal Meuse, 1984) and ‘Brabant bevrijd’ (Brabant liberated, 1993) by Jack Didden
en Maarten Swarts. The latter argue that Market Garden was lost in Brabant. I want underline
their thesis and want to add some new perspectives to this in this article.
Member Article: The War between Norway and Sweden 1808
by Kai Isaksen
The war and battles described in this article are on a very small scale compared to the major battles that raged in Europe around the same time. In general the battles included from a few hundred up to 2-3000 men, and generally lasted a few hours. The area of operations was also relatively limited, stretching from the southern border between Norway and Sweden and north to the border town of Kongsvinger, a distance of some 150 km, in the counties of Hedmark (northern part of the battlefield) and Østfold (southern part).
Member Article: Byzantine Military Pragmatism vs. Imperial Prejudice: Possible Reasons for Omitting the Armenians from the List of Hostiles in Maurice’s
by Dr. Armen Ayvazyan
The problem of the various images of the Armenians in Byzantium has already become the subject of numerous, if sketchy, historical investigations and remarks. As a rule, students of this subject have focused on the images of those Armenians who resided beyond Armenia proper in the Byzantine capital and peripheral provinces as either newly-arrived immigrants or old-established inhabitants. Consequently, the shaping of the images of the Armenians in Byzantine Empire was appropriately sought and analyzed in such spheres as ecclesiastical differences between Armenian and Greek Churches, the ethnic peculiarities of everyday life as well as the rivalry in the imperial court between the Armenians and Greeks, the two major ethnic components of Byzantine elite. In contrast, this essay aims to analyze the Byzantines’ image of the Armenians of Armenia, that is, those who continued to live in and exercise military and political authority over their homeland. Accordingly, this study focuses on the geopolitical determinant in the construction of Armenian images in the imperial strata of Byzantine society.
Member Article: Zone Guerrillas: The "Liberation Battalions" and Auxiliary Police, 1951-1954
by Christopher Weeks
At the end of the Second World War, Britain faced the increasingly difficult prospect of maintaining control over the Suez Canal in the face of rising Egyptian opposition and the economic realities of the post-war world. In attempting to exert its authority over the Canal Zone, Britain came up against a guerrilla movement fed both by nationalist and religious sentiment, and facilitated by a weak monarchy and a confrontational opposition government. The 1950-54 battle over the Canal Zone set the stage for the creation of an independent Egypt and the 1956 Suez crisis.
Excerpt: Peter Slade's Razor’s Edge.
Most employment experts suggest putting a professional “summary” at the start of one’s resume or CV. I think mine describes me quite well.
The majority of my professional life has been associated with the military/security industry. I have had extensive local and international experience, dealing with multi-national, high profile clients. I have strong management and training skills, and continue to be very much involved operationally.
Member Article: Lusty Stukeley: Deceiver of Princes
by Comer Plummer
The day was Monday, August 4, 1578. Sir Thomas Stukeley stood in his armor on the plain of Ksar el-Kebir, in the heart of the Kingdom of Fez, with the hosts assembling for battle around him. He had collected himself by then, having shed the ordeal of the previous night, with its discomforts and frustrations. He would have been calm and reflective, as only experienced soldiers could be at such times. Thomas probably knew that he was playing his final card. In a life of twists and turns the climactic moment had at last arrived. There was no maneuvering out of it. He was adrift among forces beyond his control. At last, on this battlefield, his destiny would be decided.
Member Article: Cuban Missile Crisis
by Bruce L. Brager
The Cuban Missile Crisis, the October 1962 showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union over the Soviets placing nuclear missiles in Cuba and the American reaction, is justly considered the most serious incident of the Cold War.
Wargame Review: Gary Grigsby's War in the East: The German-Soviet War 1941-1945
Review by Kai Isaksen
In the 1990’s I bought Gary Grigsby’s War in Russia, and though it had its limitations in terms of graphics, I kept playing it up till now.
With the recent release of Gary Grigsby’s War in the East from Matrix Games, that era might very well come to an end.
Installing the game I must admit I expected something like an updated version of the old classic. Let me say this immediately;
War in the East is so much more!
War in the East is what classical board gamers would call a monster game; With over 2000 counters to represent the forces of the largest military operation in history; Operation Barbaraossa, as well as 25,000+ hexes to move them around on, you have the recipe for hours of gaming fun for the armchair general. At the outset, a game this size and with such level of detail, would seem daunting for anyone but the most ardent strategy gamer. This is where the magic of modern computer technology comes in, and in my opinion, Matrix has managed to strike the right balance between details and playability, to attract also the more casual strategy gamer.
Member Article: The Saga of Ormoc Bay - November 10, 1944
by Stuart Goldberg
The battle for Leyte had been raging since an Allied invasion force arrived off the coast of this central Philippine island. From the 23rd of October to the 26th, in a running battle on the sea and in the air, the Japanese attempted to repulse the landing. This titanic military engagement, known as “The Battle of Leyte Gulf,” proved to be the largest naval battle in history and decided the fate of not only the Philippines, but also of the once mighty IJN Combined fleet. During the four-day skirmish, Adm. Halsey’s Third Fleet and Adm. Kinkaid’s Seventh decimated four separate Japanese naval task forces commanded by Admirals Ozawa, Kurita, Nishimura and Shima. When the smoke had cleared, the surviving Japanese ships of Operation “SHO-GO” limped back to Tokyo and the Americans secured the landing beaches. Consequently, despite the stiff resistance by the Imperial Navy and Adm. Onishi’s newly instituted Kamikaze tactics, American ground troops finally stormed ashore.
Member Article: Memorials Past and Future: Gettysburg and Ground Zero
by Bruce L. Brager
Memorials tell us more about the designers and builders of the memorial, and the cultural environment in which they operated, than they do about the subject of the memorial. Sometimes we are lucky enough to have the ground on which an event took place preserved, to some degree, as at the Gettysburg National Battlefield Park – perhaps too pretty to reflect the realities of war, as some have commented. We can get some idea of the role the ground played in the Battle, such as how the Confederate charge against the Federal center the last day of fighting, usually called Pickett’s Charge, actually attacked up hill.
Member Article: The Second Samnite War
by Gordon Davis
Between 343 BC and 290 BC the Romans and Samnites engaged in a series of fierce wars throughout central Italy. The two peoples, along with the Celts of the Po Valley to the north, were ascendant powers at this time, eclipsing older power blocks such as Hellas Megale and the Etruscan city-states. The fighting of 327 – 321 BC between Rome and Samnium was the opening phase of the second war between these two states and it was far more intense in both the breadth of territory covered and the number of battles fought than the first war of 343 – 341 BC.
Member Article: Korean War Outbreak: A Study in Unpreparedness
Review by Dale S. Marmion
The outbreak of the Korean War is a classic example of an army facing battle totally unprepared. Numerous histories of the Korean War have been written and many historians have discussed the outbreak of the Korean War. A point they nearly all agree upon is that the combined forces south of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) in Korea were unprepared for what turned out to be a long and extremely grueling war. That is, war, and most certainly not “police action,” as it has sometimes been referred to, raised catastrophic havoc with soldiers on the ground during the initial stages of the action that devastated the Korean Peninsula and Korean people.
Book Review: Philip Laino's Gettysburg Campaign Atlas
Review by Thomas J. Ryan
Histories that include a good set of maps are popular among Civil War enthusiasts. Maps are in demand because they are the next best thing to actually standing on the ground where battles and skirmishes took place. To see how the action unfolded is to better understand these events.
Member Article: Intelligence in the Philippine Insurrection
by James G. Starron
The Philippine-American War, also referred to as the Philippine Insurrection, is one of America’s forgotten wars (Ablett, 2004). It is also, according to Linn (2000) one of America’s most successful counterinsurgency campaigns. By 1902, when President Theodore Roosevelt declared an end to the insurrection on July 4, 1902, more than 125,000 troops had served in the Philippines. The financial cost was estimated at 400 million dollars. The human cost was estimated at 4,200 American service members dead and another 2,900 wounded (Plante, 2000). Estimates on the number of Filipinos dead range from 200,000 to 600,000.
Member Article: Stanley at Shiloh: An Improbable 'Indiana Jones'
by Walter Giersbach
The early days of April 1862 didn't turn out well for Henry Morton Stanley. A few months into his enlistment in the Dixie Greys—the 6th Arkansas Regiment—found the young man marching toward the disastrous Battle of Shiloh. This would set him on a course he couldn't have imagined.
Stanley wasn't his real name, nor was he an American—just an Englishman from Wales who liked to read and write and happened to find himself in Arkansas when war broke out. Joining the Dixie Greys came as much from the lure of adventure as patriotism. Then, on the morning of April 7, he found himself virtually the only soldier in gray facing a sea of bluecoats. His fight at Shiloh was over when a Yank shouted, "Down with that gun, Secesh, or I'll drill a hole through you!"
Member Article: Hunters of the Deep: A
Brief Synopsis of the Contribution of the Silent Service of the Pacific
by Bryan T. Hayes
The English dictionary refers to "Pacific" as an unaggressive or peaceful nature. The Pacific theater in WWII was a direct antonym as American and Japanese forces exercised immense human destruction across the islands and atolls in the central and Southern theaters. American memories of the WWII Asian battles usually dwell at Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima and Hiroshima. As such, the majority of Naval dramatic action captured on film and in books occurred on the surface, on the beaches, or in the air, as the era witnessed an incredible shift from the battleship force to the aircraft carrier, its support units and amphibious operations of the Marines and sustaining naval units.
Member Article: The Green Beret Affair: A Factual Review
by Terry McIntosh
After serving six months in country Vietnam with Special Forces C and B Teams, I was assigned to A-Team 414 operating in the Ken Tuong Province, Mekong Delta. The base camp sat a stone’s throw from the Cambodian border, and provided front line defense aimed at NVA and Viet Cong units based in the neighboring country.
The team also hosted a top secret intelligence gathering operation “over the fence” inside of Cambodia. The Intel net was a part of Project Gamma, and was illegal in regards to agreements between the United States and Vietnam, and political restraints that forbade US incursions into Cambodia at that time.