by Jeremy Gypton
1. Jim Moran and Gordon L. Rottman, Peleliu 1944: The Forgotten Corner of Hell, (Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2003), 8.
2. Ibid., 39.
3. US War Department, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces, (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1944), 85.
4. Ibid., 86.
5. Moran, 9.
6. Major General Fred Haynes (ret.), WWII Veterans Committee. 2001. World War II Veterans Committee. 1 Dec. 2003
7. Jeter A. Isely and Philip A. Crowl, The U.S. Marines and Amphibious War: Its Theory, and Its Practice in the Pacific, (Princeton: Princeton University Press: 1951), 409.
8. Moran, 38.
9. Isely, 402.
10. Joseph A. Alexander, Storm Landings: Epic Amphibious Battles in the Central Pacific, (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1997), 113.
11. The Marines, by tradition, refer to their regiments as '# Marines;' they do not use the word 'regiment' in their titling of these units.
12. The exact number of the light tanks involved in the attack is not known due to the damage done to the small, 10-ton vehicles; there were simply too many small parts and wrecked hulks to settle on a firm number.
13. Major John H. Johnstone, 1st Marine Regiment. Grunts.net. 3 Dec. 2003
14. Isely, 418.
15. Moran, 66.
16. Puller's 1st Marines had suffered 1749 casualties by D+4, which was only 6 fewer than the total number suffered by the entire division at Guadalcanal. This amounted to almost half its strength. The 1st Battalion, 1st Marines, suffered 70% casualties during the first week of fighting. Moran, 66.
17. Alexander, 122.
18. Isely, 409.
19. Moran, 89.
20. John A. Lorelli, To Foreign Shores: U.S. Amphibious Operations in World War II. (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1995), 263.
21. Isely, 403.
22. Alexander, 144/115.
23. Many of the water cans had previously carried gas and had been improperly cleaned, resulting in the sickening of numerous troops. Day time temperatures usually topped out at 110 to 115 degrees. Isely, 415.
Written by Jeremy Gypton
Copyright © 2004 Jeremy Gypton