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Western Front
Breakout From the Hedgerows: A Lesson in Ingenuity
by Walter S. Zapotoczny

The defeat of Germany was still a long way off for the United States, British and Canadian troops on July 1, 1944. The invading armies of the Western Allies had crossed the English Channel and landed on the beaches of Normandy in Northern France to strike at the heart of Germany and to end the war in Europe. The cross-Channel attack, launched on D-Day, June 6, 1944, had accomplished the first phase of the invasion by July 1, 1944. Ground troops had broken through the German coastal defenses and had established a continental abutment for an eventual bridge that was to carry men and supplies from the United Kingdom to France. At the beginning of July, the Allies looked forward to executing the second stage of the invasion, expanding their continental foothold to a size that could support an assault on Germany. Before the Allies could launch their definitive attack, they had to assemble enough men and material on the Continent to assure success.
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* * *
Memories of D-Day
by Nitin K. Shankar

My Normandy visit was more than just a holiday trip to the beaches where the D-Day amphibious troop landings took place on June 6, 1944. I had read several books on the D-day invasion as well as seen the 1961 movie "The Longest Day". On one level, I visited the actual landing sites and walked the bloody beaches where more than 10,000 men lost their lives on that fateful day. Yet, I also spent time in local museums, picking up fascinating facts about how this Anglo-American operation was managed.
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* * *
Raid on Dieppe - Prelude
by Pete Bublitz

In the early morning hours of August 19, 1942, a fleet of up to 250 ships supported by 68 R.A.F squadrons was carrying a force of 6,000-plus men across the English Channel towards the areas that surrounded the city of Dieppe, a port town located in the Pays de Caux region of northeastern France. They would be transported to their target beaches with anticipation from their superiors of accomplishing a series of damaging blows to the German fortifications in Dieppe as well as in the towns, villages, and open areas surrounding Dieppe. But as the minutes approached 0400 hours (4 a.m.), a German convoy approaching from the north would be the first blow to unravel the entire operation. Nine hours later, the convoy would return to its homeports in defeat with high casualty counts. In the years after D-Day up to the present, historians and military officials agreed that Jubilee, as the operation was codenamed, was one of the Allies' greatest military blunders of World War II. The truth is, Jubilee was turning into a blundering operation long before it was executed, due to a series of planning mistakes, miscalculations, and changes made in the weeks and months leading up to August 19.
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* * *
Sea Lion vs. Overlord
by Larry Parker

One of the favorite topics of alternative history (and one of the scenarios endlessly replayed in war games such as Axis & Allies and 3rd Reich) is what if Germany had attempted Operation Sea Lion. Assuming a Luftwaffe victory over the Royal Air Force in the Battle of Britain was Sea Lion feasible in other respects? Could Hitler have knocked the United Kingdom out of the war in the summer of 1940 or would the attempt have led to his first major defeat? This paper will compare and contrast Operation Sea Lion and Operation Overlord utilizing ten criteria essential to success in amphibious assaults - planning, materiel support, deception, intelligence, combined arms support, command structure, technology, innovation, sustainability and enemy defenses.
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* * *
The U.S. Army vs. The Maginot Line
by Bryan J. Dickerson

After having been invaded twice by the Germans in less than fifty years, the French constructed a system of formidable underground defensive positions to deter future German invasions and failing that, defend their country from them. Named for Defense Minister Andre Maginot, the Maginot Line was an astounding feat of military engineering and fortification that stretched for much of France's eastern border. Yet the Maginot Line was defeated twice in just four years. The first defeat occurred in May and June of 1940 as a result of the inevitable German invasion.
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* * *
Two General Apart: Patton and Eisenhower
by Andrew S. Harding

June 6, 1944 General Omar Bradley (1893-1981) led the First Army of the United States in the famous D-Day landing on the beaches of Normandy. Interestingly, Bradley was the understudy of another man, General George S. Patton Jr. (1885-1945). How did Bradley overtake his mentor? What caused the Supreme Allied Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1979) to give the job to Bradley when Patton had helped lead the Allies to victory in Sicily only a short time before? During the 1943 invasion, Bradley served under Patton, now Bradley was Patton’s commanding officer.
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* * *
ARMADA: The D-Day Landing Fleet Marks the Largest Invasion in History
by Chris Alper

As dawn broke over the English Channel on the morning of June 6, 1944, German coast artillery troops along a 30-mile stretch of the Normandy Coast saw an apparition that could have been custom-designed as their worst nightmare. The grey light gradually revealed a horizon filled with ships, rolling towards them in black waves: minesweepers, warships, transports and merchantmen. One German officer purportedly said, in disbelief, "It's impossible ... there can't be that many ships in the world."
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Featured Books


World War II: Day by Day


The Battle of Kursk


An Army at Dawn: The War in Africa


The Burma Road


A Question of Honor: The Kosciuszko Squadron: Forgotten Heroes of World War II


The Fall of Berlin, 1945
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