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17th-18th Century Articles
Return of Rogers' Rangers
Betrayed by a Mason?
Benedict Arnold in Canada
The Success of Napoleon
Battle of Great Bridge
Frederick: Battle of Leuthen
G. Washington and J. Monroe
The Start: Jumonville's Glen
The Raid on Thurso, 1649
Why France Lost the Seven Years' War
The Battle of Cowpens
War Comes to the Islands
The Battle of Dunbar
Governor Kieft's Personal War
Philip's War
Zaporozhian Cossack Battle at Korsun

Richard Podruchny Articles
Shenandoah Campaign
Fredericksburg Campaign
Sun Tzu and Overland Campaign
The Battle of Great Bridge
The Success of Napoleon

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The Battle of Great Bridge; A New Beginning for the Old Dominion
The Battle of Great Bridge; A New Beginning for the Old Dominion 
by Richard Podruchny

The Battle of Great Bridge, often referred to as the Second Battle of Bunker's Hill, should stand out as one the defining moments of the American Revolutionary War. Although this battle does not match the amount of troops or casualties found in other engagements, nevertheless, its overall impact can no longer be ignored. What elevates this particular battle is that numerous slaves fought alongside the British in exchange for freedom, which openly contradicts those Colonists preaching liberty, who owned slaves themselves. The outcome of this battle would hold a dissimilar importance for the men who fought at Great Bridge, where triumph for one side would prohibit liberty to the other. This battle held the fate of Virginia and the rest of the Southern Colonies in the balance.

Before the battle can be discussed, it is important for the reader to gain some insight into what it was like in the Great Bridge area during the 1700's. Prior to the American Revolution, settlers had been claiming land between the Chesapeake Bay and the Albemarle Sound for at least a century or more. In particular, Great Bridge stood on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in Virginia's Norfolk County, not far from the North Carolina border. Great Bridge was a center of activity in marketing products of the forests and fields south of the Chesapeake Bay. Great Bridge had developed markets for shingles, barrel staves, and cypress and juniper headers. Pitch, tar and turpentine, which were extracted from the many pine trees found in the area, were required for their use in the building and upkeep of ships that were critical to the areas economy.[1]

Even though the Great Bridge area was not lacking in the amount of forest products being created, it was how to get these products to market that posed a dilemma to the plantation and small farm owners. The Colonists in northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia depended on merchants and traders, whose ships transported goods to England, New York, Boston, Charleston and the West Indies. To get these goods to the merchants required getting them to their shipping point, which was the Town of Norfolk, sited at the mouth of the Elizabeth River on the Chesapeake Bay. Getting their goods to Norfolk, the Colonists either shipped them overland, which was not very practical, or by water. Both modes of shipping were rampant with problems, where the shallow North Carolina sounds did not oblige vessels with much draft and the swamps, low land and marshes of the area made road construction vastly complex.[2]

Eventually, the Colonists from Virginia and North Carolina border formed an alliance in solving their shipping problem. The Colonists brought their goods on flats and barges via the Albemarle and Currituck Sounds and the Northwest River to landings at the southern end of the Great Road. Once there, they were off-loaded to ox-drawn wagons for the trip to the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River, where they were either directly loaded onboard ships headed to Norfolk or were stored in warehouses for impending delivery to Norfolk. As the reader can notice, the Town of Norfolk has played a key role in getting the Colonist's goods to markets abroad. Norfolk itself was established as a town and port in 1705 and in later years it eventually became the Borough of Norfolk due to the amount of commerce that was taking place.[3]

As it was mentioned in the previous paragraph, the Great Road at this time was little more than a dirt trail. In some places, mainly low areas, logs were placed horizontally along the line of travel forming a corduroy section of road. The route of the Great Road followed what are today's Battlefield Boulevard just north of the North Carolina border and the Northwest River to Centerville Turnpike, along Centerville to Fentress Road, then to Mt. Pleasant Road and west on that road to Battlefield and the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River.[4]

All of this commercial activity at the Southern Branch resulted in the formation of a village. In 1686, the Norfolk County Court appointed Thomas Butt to be Surveyor of Roads and assigned him the construction of a causeway over the Southern Branch in order to connect the Great Road with a road just to the north. His result was several small bridges linked to causeways with the "great bridge" being the largest and farthest south. With the arrival of the causeway-bridge crossing of the marshes and streams, the village ultimately became known as Great Bridge. In 1775, the crossing over the Southern Branch was a 40-foot span bridge that went through marshland. The tidal marsh extended about 160 feet on either side of the waterway, and was constantly being filled and drained with the tides. What the reader needs to keep in mind is that this physical description of the bridge will play into the outcome of the battle itself.[5]

Now that the reader has a better understanding of what it was like in the Great Bridge area in the 1700's, we can now take a look at how the events unfolded into the Battle of Great Bridge. The causes that seem to be a recurring theme is the amount of discontent the Colonists placed with being taxed and in Virginia it was no different. Even back in 1652 on Virginia's Eastern Shore there were protests against imposed taxes. This principal sense of discontent with the system of taxes flared up when George Grenville, Britain's Prime Minister, pushed through the Sugar Act. At first, the Colonists saw this as another measure that the British would not fully enforce. However, Grenville intended that it should be enforced and revenue vessels were sent to guard the coasts and customs officers were ordered to move against offenders. The citizens of Norfolk were suddenly awoken to this realization when several vessels were seized by Edward H. Moseley, surveyor of Elizabeth River and public outrage over his actions forced him from his position. Therefore, in the early years of the dispute with the British Government, Norfolk sided with the colonial cause, since Grenville had affected the economy of the town when he meddled with the West Indian trade.[6]

Now that the citizens of Norfolk County were already wary of Parliaments system of taxation, this discontent flared into the open after the House of Burgesses, which was in session in Williamsburg on May 26, 1765, received from their agent in London a communiqué holding a copy of the Stamp Act Resolution passed by Parliament. Virginians led the way in fighting for this burden of taxes to be repealed, with the citizens of Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties and the Borough of Norfolk first to protest. After several months of meetings, 57 patriots assembled on 31 March 1766 at the Norfolk County Courthouse and organized The Sons of Liberty to draw up resolutions to protest the taxes.[7]

Although the citizens of Norfolk and Princess Anne Counties expressed their anger against the Stamp Act, their prayers seemed to be answered when just six weeks later, they were notified that the Stamp Act had been repealed. This elation would turn to anger yet again when Parliament, led by Charles Townshend, introduced new taxes on the colonies in the following year. In 1767, Virginia was forbidden to issue paper money and the Townshend Revenue Act imposed duties on glass, lead, paint and tea. The Boston Massacre in 1770 and the Gaspee affair in 1772 further fueled the colonist's discontent. During this time, the Boston Tea Party occurred in December of 1773, however, late in August of 1774, Norfolk became shocked at the news that nine chests of tea had arrived on the brigantine Mary and Jane. At a meeting in the courthouse, it was collectively resolved that the tea must be sent back and the merchants agreed not to take the delivery. As a result, Norfolk's version of the Boston Tea Party ended peacefully.[8]

During this period of increased tension, the colonial governors of Virginia and Massachusetts apparently became concerned about the patriot's stores of arms and munitions at around similar times. In Massachusetts, Governor Gage dispatched troops to destroy patriot munitions at Concord on the night of 18-19 April 1775, which resulted in the Battles of Lexington and Concord. On April 20, 1775, John Murray, Earl of Dunmore and Royal Governor of Virginia ordered his troops to enter the Public Magazine at Williamsburg to seize 20 kegs of gunpowder stored there.[9]

Even though tensions had drastically risen between Great Britain and the Colonies, the citizens of Tidewater Virginia were divided in their loyalties to Great Britain and Governor Dunmore. Merchants and owners of trading vessels had their money tied to letters of credit, which were held by persons in England, while the patriots had been handicapped in marketing and purchasing their goods by numerous restrictions as well as the taxes imposed by the British government. After the affair at the Public Magazine in Williamsburg, Governor Dunmore began to fear for his life and in June 1775 he fled Williamsburg and boarded the Royal William, where he sought refuge at the Gosport Shipyard in Portsmouth. The owner of the shipyard, Andrew Sproule, was intensely loyal to the crown and he welcomed the Governor and furnished barracks for his men. Even though the Governor's troops were outnumbered, he controlled all of the naval power in the area.[10]

On September 18, 1775, Virginia's Committee of Safety convened in Hanover Town and their main business was the selection and commissioning of officers and the decision was made to create two regiments in the colony. Colonel Patrick Henry became commander of the First Regiment and Colonel William Woodford, commander of the Second Regiment. The Committee of Safety wrestled with an insufficient supply of arms and gunpowder, as well as the Virginia forces not being able to control Governor Dunmore's activities around Gosport and in the Hampton Roads area. An excellent example of this can be seen on September 30, 1775, where a printer in Norfolk, John Holt, continued to compel the people not to give up their freedom without a fight, however, he was silenced by a party of 17 British troops.[12] Residents protested and appealed to the Committee of Safety for protection from the Governor's barbarous acts, nevertheless, Governor Dunmore threatened to burn the town of Hampton after learning about the resident's call for assistance.

At this point, Governor Dunmore and Virginia were now engaged in open warfare. The famous minutemen of Virginia's upper counties were now concentrating at Williamsburg in preparation for their advance on Norfolk. The patriots in Norfolk and Princess Anne, under the leadership of Matthew Phripp and Colonel Lawson, assembled in arms and situated themselves at Kemp's Landing, present day Kempsville, and other strategic points. Many of the most dependable patriots in Norfolk had already left to join the militia and a general exodus of all except those loyal to the British now took place. For the next few days, Church Street and the road to Great Bridge was crowded with fugitives, many of them driving carts filled with household goods.[13]

Now that the Colonial militia began to assemble, Governor Dunmore would now begin active operations against the local militia companies. On October 12, 1775, Captain Samuel Leslie ascended the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River and was able to capture and destroy 19 cannon concealed in a wood. Just five days later, the Governor, with a party of grenadiers, sailors and marines, sailed up the Eastern Branch of the Elizabeth River to Newton, where he landed and marched on Kemps Landing. The Colonial militia was in flight and the British, after breaking open the stores and taking off some small arms, returned unharmed to their ships. On the night of October 19, 1775, 39 men landed at Norfolk and marched out into the surrounding countryside and were able to seize 20 cannon.[14]

After the threat of burning Hampton was made, on October 24, 1775 the Committee of Safety had placed Colonel William Woodford and his 2nd Virginia Regiment on alert in Williamsburg and had attached five companies from the Culpeper Minute Battalion. This combined force was then ordered to the area of Norfolk and Portsmouth. Meanwhile, one of the British tenders, under the command of Captain Squire, was driven into a bank during a storm not far from Hampton. Some of the crew were captured and then later released, however, the citizens of Hampton took possession of the tender's armaments and burned what was left of the craft. On the night of October 25, 1775, Captain Squire landed some of his men east of Hampton and looted a number of houses, however, on the next morning, the captain and his squadron appeared off the mouth of Hampton Creek. After having to leave his sloop, Otter, behind, Captain Squire arrived at his large schooner and declared his mission to the people of Hampton, which was the return of all materials that belonged to one of his tenders. However, the citizens of Hampton believed that his true mission was to set fire to the town and he could not attempt to land troops until the channel could be cleared of debris. What followed next was an indecisive exchange of cannon and musket fire.[15]

On that same night of October 26, 1775, news of the British attacked reached Williamsburg around 2000 and 2100. The Committee of Safety ordered Colonel Woodford to Hampton with Captain Abraham Buford and his Culpeper Riflemen using horses that were borrowed from the citizens of Williamsburg. They rode all night through heavy rain, covering about 36 miles in less than 12 hours, arriving around 0800 and 0900 on the morning of 27 October 1775. While Colonel Woodford was riding to Hampton, Captain Squire's men had been cutting through the sunken vessels and his flotilla was now broadside to Hampton and initiated their bombardment.[16]

Now that Colonel Woodford was on the scene, he began stationing troops inside some of the abandoned houses, along the banks of the creek hidden by fences, trees and rocks. While Captain Squire had his barrage underway, he thought that once he started raking the houses and streets with his cannon the patriots would run. Instead, the militia already present was being reinforced with Culpeper Minutemen, famed for their accuracy in shooting. The largest cannon that Captain Squire had were 4-pounders and they proved to be useless against the well-built brick homes that housed the riflemen, who were now shooting rifles at his vessels. The fire from the riflemen was so effective that they were bringing down every British sailor in sight. Aboard the schooner that Captain Squire commanded, his sailors were unable to man their 4-pounders.[17]

Due to the accurate rifle fire of the Americans, Captain Squire's situation was becoming untenable. For his men attempting to serve the ship's cannon meant certain death or injury. As he began to realize, Captain Squire's flotilla was now being outgunned by rifle fire from the shore and his guns were gradually becoming silent and he was forced to withdraw. As he began the withdrawal, one of his tenders, the Hawke, began drifting towards the shore. Once again due to precise rifle fire, the British sailors were not able to man the tender properly and ran aground. The Hawke was captured along with its crew and armament, ending the Battle of Hampton and the first shooting engagement between Governor Dunmore and the American patriots.[18]

Now that the British had retreated to Norfolk, Governor Dunmore ordered the creation of batteries and entrenchments around Norfolk as well as the arming of slaves and Tories. On November 7, 1775, Governor Dunmore aroused the anger of the Virginia colony by issuing a proclamation declaring martial law, summoning the people to the flag of Great Britain, offering freedom to all slaves who belonged to the patriots and would take up arms for the king.[19] Governor Dunmore understood that such an act would have a wide-ranging effect. Not only would it interrupt production, it was also feed the growing terror among the colonists of armed slave revolt and point out an inherent contradiction of Colonists preaching liberty.[20] Planters would be diverted from waging war against Britain by the necessity of protecting their families and property from an internal threat. At the same time, Governor Dunmore's own force of 300 soldiers, seamen and loyalist recruits, cut off from the aid of British troops in Boston, would be reinforced by black fighting men and laborers. By using these slaves as support, Governor Dunmore would induct them into his Ethiopian Regiment, consisting of 300 slaves, which were armed and outfitted in military uniforms inscribed with the words "Liberty to Slaves."[21]

The response from the colonists was instant. Newspapers published the entire proclamation and patrols on land and water were intensified. Throughout the colonies, restrictions on slave meetings were tightened. The Virginia Gazette warned slaves to not be tempted by the proclamation and urged them to remain with their masters, citing the fact that Governor Dunmore was also a slaveholder. Although no more than 800 slaves really succeeded in reaching Governor Dunmore's lines, word of the proclamation inspired as many as 100,000 to risk all in an attempt to be free.[22]

While the colony was in an uproar over the Governor's proclamation, Colonel Woodford was moving his men from Hampton toward Norfolk by a circuitous route up the James River and crossing over to Suffolk. At the same time, Joseph Hutchings and Anthony Lawson were recruiting in Princess Anne County and with about 170 men, they were marching to meet and join Colonel Woodford.[23] When Governor Dunmore received news of this activity, he was able to muster 200 soldiers, marines and a few Norfolk Tories, due to a reinforcement of 60 men from St. Augustine, Florida, and he set out for Kemp's Landing.[24] Once there, Governor Dunmore set up his standard and issued his proclamation, declaring those who took up arms against the Crown rebels. He also called on all slaves, servants and apprentices to rally to him and receive arms.

On November 16, 1775, as Governor Dunmore moved his regulars and recruits toward North Landing, he encountered the Princess Anne militia that Joseph Hutchings and Anthony Lawson led. With their superior numbers, the British overwhelmed the Patriots who, after firing one volley and suffering casualties, fled the field and scattered into the swamps. The British captured Hutchings and Lawson, took them to Norfolk and imprisoned them aboard the schooner Thomas. Upon entering the village, Governor Dunmore set up his standard and summoned the people to take the oath of allegiance.[25]

After the Battle of Kemp's Landing, Governor Dunmore learned that the Virginia Second Regiment was on its way to Norfolk and he began hearing please from the Tories in Norfolk for him to bring his troops ashore for their protection. This plea combined with the summons from the Patriots for Andrew Sprowle to attend the Committee of Public Safety in order to answer charges of housing his Majesty's troops at Gosport. These pieces of information provoked Governor Dunmore to focus on his defenses for the Norfolk area, which he did by laying out a plan of fortification for the town, as well as initiating the construction of fortifications.[26]

Through this decision, Governor Dunmore made a mistake. Norfolk's real strength against an overland attack lay in its lone, lengthy, and circuitous route. Had the British devoted all their energies to erecting works at Bachelor's Mill on the edge of the swamp and at Great Bridge, it is probable that the Virginia troops would have never gotten within sight of Norfolk. It is at this last possible moment that Governor Dunmore realized the situation he was about to put himself in and hastily sent some of his troops to begin fortifying Great Bridge.[27]

Now that the American and British forces recognized the strategic location of the Great Bridge, each had a clear objective in its determination toward controlling it. The British knew that they could not last in water-bound Norfolk or on their ships in the harbor without supplies that came through Great Bridge. The Americans sought to break this line of supply to the British; however, they also knew that without naval power, their only hope of expelling the British from Norfolk had to be by land.

Once Governor Dunmore ordered Great Bridge to be fortified, it became known that this place possessed great natural strength. The Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River flowed here between marshes, extending 150 yards or more on either side. From the northern side a long causeway crossed the marsh to a firm footing on an island, where a wooden bridge 40 feet in length had been placed over the stream to a similar island on the other bank. This island was connected to Great Bridge by another long causeway over the marsh on the southern side. On the northern island, the British hastily built Fort Murray, named after Governor John Murray, Earl of Dunmore, and had placed four-pounder cannons to cover the bridge and both causeways[28] and manned the fort with 27 men of the 14th Regiment of Foot.[29]

Once the Virginians arrived at Great Bridge on December 2, 1775, they constructed breastworks across the southern end of the causeway, which they manned lightly, situating the main force in the village further south. The matter of entrenching was left to Adjutant General Thomas Bullitt, who was a staff officer that had some practical experience in military engineering. At the southern causeway he directed the construction of a breastwork in the form of a sagging M for effective crossfire that was seven feet in height and 150 feet in length, with mounting platforms and loopholes. On a firm, peninsula-like projection of land west of the village he constructed two earthworks for batteries when cannon could be made available.[30] To face the British across the causeway, Colonel William Woodford brought the Second Virginia Regiment, which included the Minutemen of Culpeper County, and 200 men from Fauquier and Orange Counties.[31] The total American force that assembled in the Great Bridge area totaled approximately 1,000 men.[32]

Over the next several days, there was a constant exchange of gunfire. Some small skirmishes occurred, which resulted in the British burning five of the seven buildings located on the southern causeway in order for them to get a better field of view. During these days of skirmishing, the Americans were waiting for reinforcements from North Carolina under Colonel Robert Howe. It is during these pivotal days that the British decided to take the initiative. This decision by Governor Dunmore came about from his experience in dealing with the Colonial militia at Kemp's Landing, where he remembered how the militia had fled and assumed that the Culpeper Minutemen would do the same.[33] His other reason lies with the misinformation that was received from a well-coached servant belonging to Major Thomas Marshall. This servant was described as a deserter who informed the British that there were only 300 Colonial militia in Great Bridge and several hundred more militia bringing artillery pieces were being expected from North Carolina.[34]

Now that Governor Dunmore was armed with these pieces of information, he ordered his troops to attack Colonel Woodford's position. Even though this decision went against the more experienced judgment of his officers, Governor Dunmore directed Captain Samuel Leslie to make preparations. On the night of December 8, 1775, Captain Leslie moved his command out of Norfolk and arrived undetected at Fort Murray around 0330. The troops that went with Captain Leslie was all of the 14th Regiment of Foot that Governor Dunmore had available, which included the Grenadier and light companies that totaled 121 rank and file, 32 officers and Captain Matthew Squire had also sent a detachment of gunners to man two cannon. Add to this about 60 Tory volunteers and the troops already present in Fort Murray for a combined force of about 672 men.[35]

When the British troops arrived at Fort Murray, they rested for two hours and the officers decided that the objective before them was not as simple as they thought. What they realized was that directly past the fort was the bridge and immediately beyond the bridge were the Virginian's defenses, with the bridge only wide enough to allow the men to march six abreast.[36] At dawn on December 9, 1775, Captain Leslie ordered the light troops out of the fort in order to replace the planks that had been removed from the bridge. After crossing the northern causeway and running into Colonial pickets, they set fire to the remaining buildings.[37] At this time, Captain Squire's gunners wheeled the two cannon to the bridge, where a natural bend in the road allowed the cannon to rake the Virginian's defenses without endangering the attacking force.[38]

While the British were replacing the bridge planking, reveille was sounded in the Virginian's camp. As it became customary to exchange a few shots with each other at dawn, Colonel Woodford and Major Alexander Spotswood assumed the gunfire to be part of the morning's usual activities. Even before a messenger from the breastworks could find them, they heard some of their men shouting to the others to stand to their arms. After quickly equipping themselves, the two officers rushed out of their tent to see that the British had begun their assault. After rallying 40 riflemen, Colonel Woodford rushed down to the breastwork.[39]

In the breastwork, Lieutenant Edward Travis was in command of about 61 men. He could see the British advance guard coming through the dense smoke from the burning buildings and behind it followed the Grenadier Company led by Captain Charles Fordyce. Behind Captain Fordyce came Captain Leslie with over 300 Tories and former slaves who halted behind the cannon waiting for their chance to exploit any breakthrough in the Virginian's defenses once the Grenadiers had broken through.[40]

Due to the narrow causeway, the British advanced only six abreast in perfect parade formation. They alternated firing volleys by platoons, pausing only to reload. Up to this point, the Virginians produced an accurate but sporadic fire against the British, taking a toll upon the British, forcing their formation to waver. Captain Fordyce, after rallying his men and assuming that the day could be won, initiated their charge upon the Virginian's defenses; however, unknown to Captain Fordyce, Colonel Woodford's riflemen had now reinforced the troops already at hand within the fortifications. Lieutenant Travis ordered his men to reload and hold their fire until the enemy was within 50 yards. The command to open fire was now given and within 15 feet of the Virginian's defenses, Captain Fordyce went down, being shot by no less than 14 bullets. Twelve Grenadiers fell dead in the volley, with nineteen wounded. With their commander dead, the regulars broke formation, dragging their dead and wounded back to the bridge. At this point, the Virginians began pouring out of the entrenchments collecting the British wounded and taking them back to their camp.[41]

Even while the British wounded were being gathered, one offensive maneuver on the part of the Virginians was to be made. Lieutenant Colonel Edward Stevens, of the Culpeper Minutemen, led a dash of 100 men, mainly riflemen, to the battery entrenchments on the eastern peninsula. Captain Leslie's position was now compromised and the sharpshooters began picking off Tories and former slaves off of the bridge. Now, Captain Leslie was forced to withdraw his men and cannon into Fort Murray.[42]

With the Battle of Great Bridge essentially over, after lasting for about 30 minutes, the number of British casualties is not exactly known. It is estimated that the British lost 102 men, either killed or wounded.[43] As for the Virginians, it was truly remarkable that only one was wounded, a Lieutenant Thomas Nash of the Norfolk County Militia who suffered a slight wound in his hand.[44]

The victory won by the triumphant Virginians at the Battle of Great Bridge was a decisive one. With the British regulars cut to pieces and the Tories and former slaves being demoralized, it was no longer possible to hold Fort Murray, which resulted in the British abandoning the fort on the evening of December 9, 1775. Now that the route had been secured between the colonies of North Carolina and Virginia, the road to Norfolk was now open. With this victory, it encouraged the Virginia Convention to issue a counter-proclamation to Governor Dunmore's proclamation, where the convention offered full pardons to the Royal Ethiopian Regiment if they threw down their arms and surrendered to Colonel Woodford.

This battle, although brief, was the first decisive battle fought in the South. It led to the destruction of Norfolk in January of 1776, which was a necessary decision in order to break the strength of the town's Loyalist sympathizers. The Virginian victory was a major step in eliminating British supply lines, which forced Governor Dunmore to abandon the south side of the Chesapeake Bay in the spring of 1776. This abandonment meant that the British would not be able to utilize Norfolk as a major base of operations. This battle had also pointed out that volunteer soldiers and militia had withstood a cannon supported attack against some of the finest professional soldiers in the world and virtually annihilated them. It is also one battle in the American Revolution where the rifleman played a very important role. After the battle, it became impossible for Governor Dunmore to get any assistance from those still loyal to the crown or slaves that he sought after to turn against the colony. The Battle of Great Bridge demonstrated the resolve and resourcefulness of Virginia's citizens. However, the nation would yet again see the fighting abilities of Virginia's sons in action yet again in the nation's bloodiest conflict, the War Between the States, where Virginians were called out once again to defend the Old Dominion.

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Show Footnotes and Bibliography

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Copyright © 2007 Richard Podruchny 

Written by Richard Podruchny. If you have questions or comments on this article, please contact Richard Podruchny at:

About the author:
Richard Podruchny is currently an active duty member of the USAF for the last 14 years. Over those 14 years, I have been stationed or deployed in the United Kingdom, Turkey, South Korea, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Texas, Virginia, and Alaska. As of lately, I'm an instructor for our Combat Targeting Course where we teach our students, both officer and enlisted, the doctrine and methods through which the Air Forces wields Air Power. I have been married for the last 10 years and my wife and I have two beautiful children, an 8 year old daughter and a 5 year old son.

Published online: 01/13/2007.

* Views expressed by contributors are their own and do not necessarily represent those of MHO.
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