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(1863) Battle of Gettysburg
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Larry Purtell
Little Meadows
PA USA
Posts: 982
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Posted on: 7/24/2020 10:41:59 AM


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Michigan Dave
Muskegon, Michigan
MI USA
Posts: 5834
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/24/2020 10:49:49 AM

The article makes good points in that these losses in property, and man-power are resources that the South could not get back!?

What say you?
MD
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Larry Purtell
Little Meadows
PA USA
Posts: 982
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/24/2020 11:06:43 AM

Quote:
The article makes good points in that these losses in property, and man-power are resources that the South could not get back!?

What say you?
MD


Another side effect of these loss's is that by mid 1863 many men in the South see the war as lost and see military service as a death sentence for them and their families. Widespread resistance to conscription is no longer seen as dishonorable or cowardly.

Larry
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"My goal is to live forever. So far, so good.
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/25/2020 6:43:36 AM

Quote:
The article makes good points in that these losses in property, and man-power are resources that the South could not get back!?

What say you?
MD



Territory means little in a vast expanse ; unless, of course, pivotal points of rail, road and river communications are taken within. It might even be argued that the very size of the Confederacy was too great to allow for effective defence ; trying to protect everywhere resulted in protecting nothing. Northern historians like to argue that their superior resources were dissipated in the invaders’ attempt to uphold lines of supply etc.....Southerners might also vouch the same in reverse, as their forces were stretched around a vast perimeter of vulnerable points.

The psychological impact of reverses must have taken their toll on Southern morale : might not the same be said of a series of Northern defeats ?

Interesting how this article speaks of imminent confederate collapse ; the image of the end of German resistance being mooted in the summer of 1944 comes to mind.

The article reminds me of Mark Twain’s refrain that while history does not repeat itself, it ryhmes.

One year after it was written , the state of the Northern war effort was fragile, and the outcome of the conflict far from certain.

Edit : Winston Churchill, a keen student of the American Civil War, made this very point in the Second World War, when he warned the Anglo American public not to allow euphoria in the successes of 1944 to obscure the fact that more Northern blood was shed on the battlefield after Gettysburg than in the previous two years of warfare.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Gregory C. White
Canton
GA USA
Posts: 281
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/25/2020 7:55:59 PM

Quote:
Quote:
The article makes good points in that these losses in property, and man-power are resources that the South could not get back!?

What say you?
MD



Territory means little in a vast expanse ; unless, of course, pivotal points of rail, road and river communications are taken within. It might even be argued that the very size of the Confederacy was too great to allow for effective defence ; trying to protect everywhere resulted in protecting nothing. Northern historians like to argue that their superior resources were dissipated in the invaders’ attempt to uphold lines of supply etc.....Southerners might also vouch the same in reverse, as their forces were stretched around a vast perimeter of vulnerable points.

The psychological impact of reverses must have taken their toll on Southern morale : might not the same be said of a series of Northern defeats ?

Interesting how this article speaks of imminent confederate collapse ; the image of the end of German resistance being mooted in the summer of 1944 comes to mind.

The article reminds me of Mark Twain’s refrain that while history does not repeat itself, it ryhmes.

One year after it was written , the state of the Northern war effort was fragile, and the outcome of the conflict far from certain.

Edit : Winston Churchill, a keen student of the American Civil War, made this very point in the Second World War, when he warned the Anglo American public not to allow euphoria in the successes of 1944 to obscure the fact that more Northern blood was shed on the battlefield after Gettysburg than in the previous two years of warfare.

Regards, Phil


Phil,

Do you have a source for the Churchill quote on Gettysburg; and has anyone analyzed Union casualties post-Gettysburg versus those incurred 1861-1862 ?

Best Regards,

Greg C. White
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"I do not believe that any man can adequately appreciate the world of to-day unless he has some knowledge of...[and] some feeling for...the history of the world of the past." Theodore Roosevelt
Phil Andrade
London
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Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/26/2020 3:26:13 AM

Greg,

Churchill’s comments are on record , and I promise to research and authenticate them....right now I’m on a family holiday in Devon, without access to my beloved books, but I’ll resort to good old google in the meantime and see what I can conjure up.

The same applies to the Union casualties post Gettysburg. I’m absolutely convinced about this. I would add one important caveat : the toll of disease might have been significantly higher in the earlier part of the war, thereby inflating the overall death toll to a level even higher than that after Gettysburg ...but if we focus purely on battlefield bloodshed , then just the cataclysmic months of May and June 1864 were so transcendentally bloody as to increase confidence in my citation from Churchill .

I will provide some more detail as soon as I can get hold of it. While I’m confident, I know that I’ve been wrong too many times to get complacent.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 4:59:55 AM

Not forgetting my promise here.....I regret to report that my google forays have failed to provide the evidence I seek about Churchill’s reminder that more Northern blood was shed after Gettysburg than before .

At the risk of seeming conceited, I am absolutely certain that he did issue that warning : I cannot bring myself to believe that I had not read it or heard it....but it remains incumbent upon me to authenticate. I’ll do my best.

There is certainly sufficient data to indicate the greater part of the Northern battlefield bloodshed being incurred after Gettysburg. If statistics are requested, then I’ll furnish them.

The same might not be said for the South with the same confidence. The very heavy rebel casualties at Shiloh, the Seven Days especially - and of course at Gettysburg itself -testify to DH Hills comment that We were very lavish of blood in those days...it was thought a grand thing to charge a battery.

The 1864 battles in the East and in Georgia - until Hood took command - saw Confederates fighting skilfully and resolutely on the defensive, with prudent and effective counter attacks. They were not so “ lavish” then....although this must not imply that they did not suffer. They just exacted a better exchange rate.

The big exception, of course, was Franklin.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 7:40:09 AM

Almost on cue I've found some authoritative source material to cite : although in this case it pertains to the Confederate armies rather than the Union.

Dr Joseph Jones, Surgeon General and Medical Inspector to the Confederate armies, gave a detailed analysis of the record of the CSA medical services, and the challenges they faced.

During the period of nineteen months, January, 1862, July, 1863, inclusive, over one million cases of wounds and disease were entered upon the Confederate field reports, and over four hundred thousand cases of wounds upon the hospital reports. The number of cases of wounds and disease treated in the Confederate field and general hospitals were, however, greater during the following twenty-two months, ending April, 1865. .

More to come after lunch.

Regards, Phil


----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Larry Purtell
Little Meadows
PA USA
Posts: 982
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 7:57:27 AM

Good stuff Phil. Thanks for your research on this interesting subject.

Larry
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"My goal is to live forever. So far, so good.
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 8:31:01 AM

Thanks, Larry, and, if I may, I would like to elaborate.

Jones alluded to more than four hundred thousand cases of wounds being recorded in hospitals between January 1862 and July 1863, but this must not be interpreted as 400,000 wounded men. A man might be wounded and pass through different medical facilities in the course of his treatment, with each establishment recording his wound and making several aggregate cases on record for one wound.

Here’s an analysis that Jones himself provided, in which he tabulated the total number of confirmed killed in action in the Confederate armies through the several years of the war. The periodic totals are expressed here as a percentage of the aggregate for the war :

1861 : 2.44%

1862 : 34.4%

1863 : 22%

1864-65 : 41.1%

And here are corresponding figures for wounded in action :

1861 : 2.1%

1862 : 35.4%

1863 : 26.45%

1864-65 : 36 %

For 1861, it’s apparent that First Manassas , Wilson’s Creek and Belmont, combined, accounted for more than half of the year’s total of killed.

1862 is a bit shocking : here indeed we can see what DH Hill meant when he spoke of being “ lavish “ of blood.

Regarding 1863, I can’t help but feel that the total is understated : Chancellorsville, Gettysburg and Chickamauga were enormously expensive in southern lives.

But the figure for the final period, 1864-65, speaks volumes about the intensity and relentlessness of the war.
Bad as it was for the South, it was surely even worse for the North. Without producing any comparable tabulation for the Union armies, the briefest survey of the Overland Campaign’s toll is surely sufficient to suggest that Churchill was right.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
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Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 11:00:16 AM

Let Fox have a defining say here.

The aggregate of killed and mortally wounded in the Confederate Armies during the war was 16,000 less than in the Union Armies ; or, adding the usual proportion of wounded, a difference of about 60,000, killed and wounded, in favor of the Confederates. Up to 1864 the aggregate of losses on each side was substantially the same.......The excess of 16,000 killed, in the Union aggregate - or, its equivalent of 60,000 killed and wounded - occurred almost wholly in the campaigns of 1864-5.


Bearing in mind the statement from Jones of more than 40 % of all CSA combat deaths occurring in that 1864-65 period, and taking into account the significantly heavier bloodshed that was inflicted on the Union forces, it seems very hard to refute the statement that the yankees suffered a greater slaughter in the phase after Gettysburg than they had beforehand.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Gregory C. White
Canton
GA USA
Posts: 281
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 7/31/2020 11:34:56 PM

Quote:
Not forgetting my promise here.....I regret to report that my google forays have failed to provide the evidence I seek about Churchill’s reminder that more Northern blood was shed after Gettysburg than before .

At the risk of seeming conceited, I am absolutely certain that he did issue that warning : I cannot bring myself to believe that I had not read it or heard it....but it remains incumbent upon me to authenticate. I’ll do my best.

There is certainly sufficient data to indicate the greater part of the Northern battlefield bloodshed being incurred after Gettysburg. If statistics are requested, then I’ll furnish them.

The same might not be said for the South with the same confidence. The very heavy rebel casualties at Shiloh, the Seven Days especially - and of course at Gettysburg itself -testify to DH Hills comment that We were very lavish of blood in those days...it was thought a grand thing to charge a battery.

The 1864 battles in the East and in Georgia - until Hood took command - saw Confederates fighting skilfully and resolutely on the defensive, with prudent and effective counter attacks. They were not so “ lavish” then....although this must not imply that they did not suffer. They just exacted a better exchange rate.

The big exception, of course, was Franklin.

Regards, Phil



Phil,

Thank you for your efforts on the Churchill quote.

I think I have it narrowed down to a 1954 book: "Sir Winston Churchill: A Self Portrait", possibly p. 269.

By chance do you have access to this book? I did a "google" search using "Churchill Gettysburg" and
it took me many places, but the precise quote seems to be in this book.

Best Regards,

Greg
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"I do not believe that any man can adequately appreciate the world of to-day unless he has some knowledge of...[and] some feeling for...the history of the world of the past." Theodore Roosevelt
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/1/2020 4:21:31 AM

Greg,

Thank you.

It’s a horrible feeling, when you know that you’ve seen something, but can’t cite the evidence.

Please put me out of my suspense....I don’t have access to that book ; if you can trace the passage, would you mind telling us what Churchill says on page 269 ?


Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/1/2020 6:31:56 AM

Trying to put this Churchillian quote into context, I’ll rely on memory, and suggest that he addressed Congress on a visit to the US at some point during the war when the tide was turning significantly in the Allies’s favour. I wonder if it might have been in the early summer of 1943, after North Africa had been won, and he was touring sites in between business with FDR.

Churchill was proud of his American blood, and was keen to remind the US public that he had quite a profound interest in their history, especially in the Civil War.

My recollection is that he said something like :

I toured Gettysburg, which, like many of your battlefields, I know well. It’s important to remind ourselves that the deadliest phase of conflict might occur in the winning of it, and we must remember that more northern blood was shed after Gettysburg than in all the fighting up to , and including, that terrible battle.

It wouldn’t surprise me if he alluded to this in his history of the English Speaking Peoples, that contains a pretty fulsome section on the American Civil War.

I reflect on the statistics, and especially on Fox’s assertion that the North lost 16,000 battle deaths in excess of the South ( 110,000 v 94,000 ), and that those sixteen thousand are due to the fighting of 1864-5.
If this is so - and I believe it is - then not less than half of that excess can be attributed to the Overland alone, in the period between the Wilderness and Cold Harbor.

Regards, Phil



----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Gregory C. White
Canton
GA USA
Posts: 281
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/1/2020 12:16:09 PM

Quote:
Greg,

Thank you.

It’s a horrible feeling, when you know that you’ve seen something, but can’t cite the evidence.

Please put me out of my suspense....I don’t have access to that book ; if you can trace the passage, would you mind telling us what Churchill says on page 269 ?


Regards, Phil

Phil,

I will do that as the University of Georgia library has the book. The problem is, most libraries are not open here because of the COVID. When schools hopefully re-open later this month, I hope I'm permitted (as a non-student) access.

I will let you know what I find out.

Best Regards,

Greg
----------------------------------
"I do not believe that any man can adequately appreciate the world of to-day unless he has some knowledge of...[and] some feeling for...the history of the world of the past." Theodore Roosevelt
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/2/2020 7:22:35 AM

Quote:


During the period of nineteen months, January, 1862, July, 1863, inclusive, over one million cases of wounds and disease were entered upon the Confederate field reports, and over four hundred thousand cases of wounds upon the hospital reports. The number of cases of wounds and disease treated in the Confederate field and general hospitals were, however, greater during the following twenty-two months, ending April, 1865. .






What a bewildering array of contradictions we find in these figures !

Am I on a fool’s errand here ?

The figures that Dr Jones himself furnish suggest the greater part of the CSA battle deaths occurred up to and including Gettysburg. The very heavy loss of life at Chancellorsville, and, of course, Gettysburg - not to mention significant loss in the Vicksburg Campaign - would surely account for more than half of the dead attributed to 1863. Yes, Chickamauga was a bloodbath for the South. That said, the later part of 1863 could not have cost the same amount of blood as the period up to and including Gettysburg that year.

My reckoning, based on Jones’s own attribution of percentages , and applying it to the generally accepted estimate of 94,000 CSA killed in battle, suggests 50,000 for the period to Gettysburg, and 44,000 subsequently, with the Union counterparts being 50,000 and 60,000 respectively . That’s a bit of a wing and a prayer, but I think it might pass the sniff test.

One thing is abundantly clear, for the North the post Gettysburg bloodshed was significantly greater.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
john hayward
Allenstown
NH USA
Posts: 797
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/2/2020 10:44:11 AM

Phil
1862 does have 3 "bloodbaths" Shiloh Malvern Hill and Antietam. Throw in Gaines Mill and Mechanicsville and you have some pretty large numbers. Not really up on my western battles but Corinth/Iuka were tough battles and not sure if Stones River is an 1863 battle.
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Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/2/2020 12:03:35 PM

John,

There were several days in 1862 which cost the south extremely bloody casualties. In order of bloodiness I would array them

Antietam, 17 September : 9,500

Gaines’s Mill 27 June : 8,000

Shiloh 6 April : 7,000

Stones River : 31 December : 7,000

Malvern Hill 1 July : 5,500

Second Mannassas 30 August : 5,000

Northern casualties were heavier still at Antietam, and, of course, at Fredericksburg, which cost the Union as much blood as Antietam. On the first days of both Shiloh and Murfreesboro they also suffered casualties that rivalled or exceeded those of the Confederates.

These are figures for killed and wounded, excluding unwounded POWs.

After Chickamauga, which cost the South appalling bloodshed, I think that there were only two days when the South lost five to six thousand killed or wounded, both in the Western theatre under Hood’s command, at Atlanta and Franklin. The yankees, on the other hand, suffered bloodier losses than that on 5th and 6th of May in the Wilderness, 12th of May at Spotsylvania, 3rd June at Cold Harbor, and 18th June at Petersburg.

There were numerous other days which cost several thousand killed and wounded.

DH Hill, who made that memorable statement about the South being lavish of blood in 1862, made another striking comment that, after Chickamauga , southern soldiers never fought with the same elan, but with the stubbornness of despair.

Editing : feeling a little uncomfortable here : I think I should have included the Wilderness, second day, 6 May 1864 as another day in the 1864-5 phase when the South lost five thousand or so killed or wounded, in what Churchill described as a vehement “ counterstroke”. Lee remarked that his loss in wounded was large, but that the wounds tended to be slight, because the yankees hadn’t been able to deploy their artillery. An interesting comparison might be made with Malvern Hill, where a similar number of rebels had been hit, with artillery causing an unusually large proportion of the wounds. I bet that those wounds were not slight.

Regards, Phil

----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/3/2020 5:58:07 AM

Seeking to investigate the prodigality of Confederate fighting up to and including Gettysburg, and comparing it with the later phase of the war, I decided to compare the casualties suffered by Longstreet's two divisions at Gettysburg in their big attack on Day Two, and compare it with what they accomplished in a more reflexive action that developed on the second day of the Wilderness, 6 May 1864.

I have used two authoritative and meticulous studies, John Busey for Gettysburg and Alfred Young for the Wilderness.

At Gettysburg, 2 July 1863, Longstreet's two divisions deployed 15,420 men in his assault, and suffered a loss of 4,097 killed or wounded (26.6%). Of these, 725 were killed outright and 448 died from wounds, a total of 1,173, or 28.6% of the men who were hit.

In the Wilderness, 6 May 1864, his two divisions deployed 11,285 men and lost 2,865 killed or wounded, or 25.4%. In proportionate terms, very nearly as bloody as Gettysburg. But, in the Wilderness, the killed outright numbered 398, and the died from wounds, 213 : a total of 611 killed or mortally wounded, or only 21.3% of the men who were hit. Lee's comment about the higher proportion of slight wounds due to the lack of artillery is borne out.

I have excluded unwounded prisoners from these figures, and should point out that a small number of Longstreet's Gettysburg casualties were incurred on the 3rd of July, just as a few of his Wilderness victims fell during skirmishing on the 7th of May.

I hope I can find comparable data on his loss at Chickamauga.

Editing : I should have acknowledged that the higher fatality rate among Longstreet's casualties at Gettysburg owes much to the fact that many of his wounded were left in enemy hands, where 327 of them died. In the Wilderness, only 4 of his wounded succumbed in the hands of the enemy. The implications in terms of tactical success or failure are all too apparent here. As for Chickamauga, there is no comparable source material to provide such a detailed analysis, only returns which do not allow for mortally wounded or for missing who had been killed. All I have to hand is EP Alexander's summary, which credits Longstreet's AoNV contingent with a strength of 6,000 under Hood, and states that the division lost 2,046 killed and wounded, or a shocking 34.1%. I suspect that Alexander understates the strength of the division, so the real loss, although very bloody, was a bit lower in percentage terms. Here, again, the battle was fought in the woods, and artillery played little part in inflicting this damage, and it's significant that only 273 were posted as killed outright. There are no data to indicate mortality among the very large number of wounded, but I would have thought that no fewer than 150 of them, and maybe 175, would have died.

Regards, Phil

----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/5/2020 7:03:08 AM

The image of Civil War battlefield medicine is notorious : primitive, unhygienic and lethal for too many.

Do you get the impression that this has been exaggerated ?

There were many who survived dreadful wounds, and the doctors and nurses achieved wonders.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
john hayward
Allenstown
NH USA
Posts: 797
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/5/2020 1:50:33 PM

Phil
I believe you can find stories to support both sides of CW medicine.

A 5th NJ soldier shot in the hand at Petersburg. Finger removed. 5 days later infection, hand removed. 1 week infection spreads arm amputated at elbow, survives.

a 7th NJ soldier found July 4 Gettysburg, sitting up dazed but in good shape. A round hole is found (.69 cal. size)in front of and just above ear. Taken to hospital where surgeon slides middle finger in hole. feels brain above finger and bony brain pan below it. Decides to let it drain out as bone, pus, blood and fabric from hat appears. Soldier develops fever but recovers. In 1888 applies for pension complaining of vertigo, unable to lift head and if sleeps on back has violent nightmares
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"When fascism comes to America it will be wrapped in the flag and carrying a cross."
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/5/2020 5:23:44 PM

John,

Thanks for the anecdotes.

They add the humanity to the statistics that I churn out.

I have heard it said that, had the Civil War been postponed for a decade or so, medical science might have advanced sufficiently to have saved many lives.....but the same speaker countered by reminding us that during that time the development of automatic firepower might have made the combat sufficiently deadly to cancel the benefits of better medical practice.

Regards, Phil

----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
john hayward
Allenstown
NH USA
Posts: 797
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/6/2020 7:04:23 PM

Phil
Many US doctors refused to accept the new radical "European" idea of germs. You need to look no further that the shooting of Pres Garfield to see that. i suggest Destiny of the Republic by Candace Millard for good view of doctors' beliefs in 1881
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"When fascism comes to America it will be wrapped in the flag and carrying a cross."
Phil Andrade
London
 UK
Posts: 4559
The end of the rebellion.
Posted on: 8/7/2020 5:51:06 AM

John,

The old saying necessity is the mother of invention comes to my mind a lot when I contemplate the Civil War.

It’s tempting to suggest that this syndrome did indeed lend a particular inventiveness to the southern war effort.

The river and sea warfare saw Confederate invention of armoured vessels and submarines. I wonder if there was comparable ingenuity in the medical sector.

It’s a remarkable feature of the Battle of Gettysburg that, as revealed by the meticulous research of John Busey, more Union soldiers died from wounds than Confederates. The difference was small : 1,995 Confederates compared with about 2,050 Federals.....but when you consider that there were 15,500 rebels wounded in the battle, compared with 14,500 yankees, and that the circumstances of defeat and retreat were bound to entail the abandonment of wounded men and the intense hardship of those carried away in the withdrawal, you have to wonder how this could have been the case. I suspect it might have been a different method of counting. Maybe a mortally wounded confederate was classified as killed in action, while his yankee counterpart was consigned to the wounded until he expired, whereupon he was counted as died of wounds. This could be clutching at straws : the confirmed KIA were 3,446 Confederates and 3,155 Federals , so it’s rather hard to understand the outcome. The shocking experience of defeat and retreat was very much the fate of Union soldiers in the first two days of the battle, and this might account for the higher mortality among their wounded. I note an extremely high death rate among the wounded soldiers of the XI Corps, which suggests I might be on to something here.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes

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