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Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 9:47:30 AM
Flamethrowers were first used by the Germans in early 1915, pretty well 108 years ago, and were deployed against French soldiers near Verdun.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 10:24:23 AM
I thought flamethrowers use pressurized gasoline, not napalm.
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 10:42:43 AM
1865 CSA President Jefferson Davis allows slaves to fight for the Confederacy! Too little to late!? BTW what's in it for the slaves?? Kind of seems hippacritical?? what say you??

I was under the impression that any slaves who fought for the Confederacy, were not guaranteed their freedom. So who was going to fight to remain oppressed.

Now, in our American Revolution, any indentured servants, enslaved African Americans, or others held in bondage by American revolutionaries, so long as they were willing to bear arms for British troops fighting against American forces during the Revolutionary War, were promised freedom. Though I don't go along with the 1619 Project, that Americans only wanted Independence in order to preserve slavery.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 10:57:17 AM
Quote:
I thought flamethrowers use pressurized gasoline, not napalm.


You’re right, I’m sure. My point was following on from George’s post, with its array of flamethrowers from Crocodiles etc. Whether by napalm or pressurised gasoline, the direct projection of flame against the bodies of people on the battlefield was inaugurated on the industrial scale by the Germans in WW1.

Editing: I failed to acknowledge the “ Greek Fire” of more ancient times.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 11:11:12 AM
topics for 3-13, in history! Moved to new page, for easy viewing! Comments??

For example in 1677 Massachusetts buys Maine for $6,000, now that's a bargin, did it effect British N. America??
Comments anyone??

1865 CSA President Jefferson Davis allows slaves to fight for the Confederacy! To little to late!? BTW what's in it for the slaves?? Kind of seems hippacritical?? what say you??

1868 Senate begins Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson! Why was he being impeached for? What do you think of Impeachment as A control of the executive branch??

1884 the US adopts Standard time, btw did you move the time up yesterday? Thanks for your opinions of daylight savings time?? Any more comments on it? anyone??

1881 the Czar Alexander II is assassinated, what's the chances this could happen to Putin?? Anyone??

1888 the great blizzard of 88 happens! Why is North America's, & Europes weather so hostile lately! Canada was burried in snow back then? Anyone??

1925 Tennessee makes it unlawful to teach evolution! Do you think church & state are being to mixed together lately?? What say you??

1940 the Winter War ends who won between USSR & Finland? Anyone??

1943 A failed attempt to kill Hitler, how many times did he dodge the Bullitt?? Unlucky? Comments?

1969 Apollo 9 returns to Earth! What say you about the Apollo program? Successful or not? Anyone?

Regards,
MD

BTW thanks, George,

I hadn't thought about flame throwers, had to have napalm, & Commonwealth forces definitely used them!?
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 1:32:33 PM
Quote:
I thought flamethrowers use pressurized gasoline, not napalm.


I think that the M2 handheld flamethrower used by US forces used napalm. But that was near the end of the war. It was used later in Korea and in Vietnam too.

I don't know when the conversion from pressurized gas to napalm occurred.

Cheers,

George
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 4:22:44 PM
Quote:
1925 Tennessee makes it unlawful to teach evolution! Do you think church & state are being to mixed together lately?? What say you??


MD, is this phenomenon exclusive to your culture or perhaps to the type of federation that you have? Certainly, I find any influence of organized religion on any aspect of governance to be repugnant.

Offhand, I would say that Canada values secularism and that includes Québec which rid itself of the yoke of religious persuasion on lifestyle and government several decades ago. The RC church in that province was far too influential and the people tired of it. Personally, I even feel uneasy when our buffoon of a Premier in Ontario ends his speeches with, "God Bless the people of Ontario". Politicians rarely speak those words nor are they asked what their faith is. Politicians aspiring to be PM of the country do not seem to be required to be seen at church as a prerequisite for success. I would say that any who are known to be overly religious are viewed with some suspicion as if their religious beliefs would cause them to support the elimination of some rights, like the right to an abortion for example.

That doesn't mean that we do not have religious lobby groups that express their beliefs and try to influence politicians. But that makes most of us uncomfortable.

As for teaching evolution, it is a subject listed on the school curriculum in my province. As if to contradict myself somewhat, I do know that when evolution is taught teachers tend to use the rest of animal world for examples and pay short shrift to the human animal as part of the evolutionary process and theory. Why? Because there are creationists or children of creationists among those in the audience.

However, creationism is not taught as part of the public school curriculum. We do have a second public board in this province for Roman Catholics and teachers who work there teach both creationism and evolutionary theory. They work hard to prove that one theory does not contradict the other.

61% of Canadians believe that humans evolved from less advanced life forms. Only 23% believe that a God created man.

A recent study in the US indicated that 55% believed that humans evolved from earlier species of animals.

Now here is the difference between cultures. 40% of Americans believe in creationism. Of the 54% that profess to believe in evolution, 33% acknowledge the process but believe that it occurred with God's guidance. Only 22% dismiss the influence of God in the evolutionary process.

I think that regionalism is a factor that influences attitudes toward subjects like evolution. We are a country of regions as well and despite my belief that secularism rules in this country there are few politicians who would risk standing up to express that creationism should be banned as a theory in all science courses.

Cheers,

George

OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 4:51:39 PM
Review the Scopes Monkey Trials, and take that as a warning.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/14/2023 7:14:54 PM
Quote:
Quote:
I thought flamethrowers use pressurized gasoline, not napalm.


I think that the M2 handheld flamethrower used by US forces used napalm. But that was near the end of the war. It was used later in Korea and in Vietnam too.

I don't know when the conversion from pressurized gas to napalm

Cheers,

George


From a recently published and very readable account of tank warfare, Brothers in Arms, by James Holland, page 379 :

Crocodiles also moved up and fired their horrific jets of burning rubber and oil.

Here he alludes to fierce fighting along the German border in November 1944, when British tanks assisted American infantry as the Siegfried Line was breached.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 7:55:54 AM
Quote:
Quote:
1925 Tennessee makes it unlawful to teach evolution! Do you think church & state are being to mixed together lately?? What say you??


MD, is this phenomenon exclusive to your culture or perhaps to the type of federation that you have? Certainly, I find any influence of organized religion on any aspect of governance to be repugnant.

Cheers,
George




Hi George,

I think that a large but minority group does not believe in the separation of church & state, here in the US! They believe our country was founded on white Christian ways. Which doesn't necessarily lend itself to equality of all, in the land of the free!???

I have reservations about this, instead of acting on some tragedy, they say our prayers are with the victims! & then that's it!??

I wish we all just got along, & in all aspects our country,& the world, we did our best to be fair & improve life for everyone!?? But alas that just appears to be a dream!!?

Peace,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 8:03:25 AM
Hi MHO'ers,

Today 3-15 in history, check these out!? & comment, or add any new topics!?

44bc Brutis has Caesars back! Not good for Ceasar! Comments on why this happened? Anyone??

1493 Columbus returns from the New World! What did he find? & What did he do, & it's effects? What say you about Columbus??

1778 Capt. James Cook is on Vancouver Island, did he claim it for Britain? If not who did? Comments?

1783 George Washington save the New Republic from a Coup! Why a Coup? & What did he do to stop it??

1827 the Univ. of Toronto is chartered! How big of a college is this?? Anyone?

1906 Rolls Royce is formed! I heard they did aircraft engines for the RAF! Which planes? Comments, anyone??

1951 UN forces retake Seoul, Korea! What countries fought through the UN, against N. Korea, & China?? Comments on Korean War??

1961 S. Africa withdraws from the British Commonwealth! Why?? comments anyone?

New events?
Comments on anything??
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 8:32:07 AM
On this day in US History,...



https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/maine-enters-the-union?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0315-03152023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2


As part of the Missouri Compromise between the North and the South, Maine is admitted into the Union as the 23rd state. Administered as a province of Massachusetts since 1647, the entrance of Maine as a free state was agreed to by Southern senators in exchange for the entrance of Missouri as a slave state.

In 1604, French explorer Samuel de Champlain visited the coast of Maine and claimed it as part of the French province of Acadia. However, French attempts to settle Maine were thwarted when British forces under Sir Samuel Argall destroyed a colony on Mount Desert Island in 1613. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, a leading figure in the Plymouth Company, initiated British settlement in Maine after receiving a grant and royal charter, and upon Gorges’ death in 1647 the Massachusetts Bay Colony claimed jurisdiction. Gorges’ heirs disputed this claim until 1677, when Massachusetts agreed to purchase Gorges’ original proprietary rights.

As part of Massachusetts, Maine developed early fishing, lumbering and shipbuilding industries and in 1820 was granted statehood. In the 19th century, the promise of jobs in the timber industry lured many French Canadians to Maine from the Canadian province of Quebec, which borders the state to the west. With 90 percent of Maine still covered by forests, Maine is known as the “Pine Tree State” and is the most sparsely populated state east of the Mississippi River.
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​Maine entered as a free state and Missouri was admitted as a slave state, to keep the Congress in balance.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 3:17:30 PM
Quote:
Review the Scopes Monkey Trials, and take that as a warning.


Guys,

They ruled against science then, & things still haven't changed today, to them it's religion verse science! ? Fundamental religious beliefs probably caused many deaths over Covid 19!? Sad that many would not get vaccines because of politics, & religion!?

What say you??
Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 3:42:00 PM
Quote:
1827 the Univ. of Toronto is chartered! How big of a college is this?? Anyone?


Don't conflate the terms college and university in Canada. Universities are degree granting institutions. Colleges or Community Colleges grant diplomas and are largely dedicated to the provision of practical applications of learning.

Now that I have said that you will note that the University of Toronto is made up of a number of colleges. These are not to be confused with Community Colleges.

U of T is a secular institution today but not at its inception. The first governor of the colony of Upper Canada was John Graves Simcoe and he had lobbied the elite of the town of York to support the creation of a colonial college. But it was not until 1826 that the powerful Bishop of the Anglican Church was sent to England to lobby for the creation of a university.

King George IV issued a Royal Charter which gave the colony the right to create a university. And it was called the University of King's College and its religious affiliation with the Anglican Church of Canada was important as it was affiliated with the Church of England. Parts of the charter allude to the fact that the university must educate students in religious matters as well as science and languages.

By 1850 there were winds of change in the colony and displeasure with the religious affiliation that Univ. of King's College had with the Church of England. And so in that year the university became a secular institution and that allowed for other colonial colleges with a religious affiliation to join. Univ. of King's College became the University of Toronto in that year

This upset the Anglicans who then set up Trinity College as an independent institution. It took until 1904 before Trinity joined U of T again.

Meanwhile, a number of religion affiliated colleges in the colony amalgamated under the U of T umbrella. The Methodists had founded Victoria College. The Roman Catholics had founded St. Michaels College. The Presbyterians had Knox College. The list goes on.

I said that the university was now secular but every student that is accepted also affiliates with one of the colleges. They are somewhat different in the way that they administer their affairs. Some have co-ed dorm floors. Some don't. So students pick the college that best suits them. If my memory serves, each college formerly associated with a faith may also offer theology degrees that differ somewhat in their focus. I believe that there are now 11 college affiliates and several have never had any religious affiliation in the past.

University of Toronto is a pretty big operation with 97,000 students (undergrad and graduate). It has an outstanding medical school. The school consists of three campuses with the main campus, the St. George campus being right downtown. This campus abuts the land upon which the provincial parliament sits. There are two other campuses. One is Scarborough College in Toronto's east end. The other is the Mississauga campus which is just west of Toronto in the city of Mississauga.

[Read More]

Like most Canadian universities, University of Toronto is publicly funded. Well regarded research programmes give it an international reputation. It educates a large international body of students.

U of T library system is the 3rd largest in North America.

Heritage buildings everywhere you look at the St. George campus.

Hart House: Wasted too many hours in the basement pub



Victoria College on St. George Campus



Trinity College at St. George




Cheers,

George









RichTO90
Bremerton WA USA
Posts: 712
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 4:52:41 PM
Quote:
From a recently published and very readable account of tank warfare, Brothers in Arms, by James Holland, page 379 :

Crocodiles also moved up and fired their horrific jets of burning rubber and oil.

Here he alludes to fierce fighting along the German border in November 1944, when British tanks assisted American infantry as the Siegfried Line was breached.

Regards, Phil


Technically, it was not rubber, it was a mixture of natural latex and gasoline but both British and American Chemical Warfare Services stopped using that mixture for the most part after the loss of Malaya. Instead they used various combinations of fuel oil, gasoline, and kerosene, which were adequate at best. The search for an additive that worked as well as natural latex led to Professor Louis Fieser combining coprecipitated aluminium salts of naphthenic acid and palmitic acid as a gelling agent additive to gasoline or diesel.

BTW, Napalm celebrated its 81st birthday last Valentine's Day.
RichTO90
Bremerton WA USA
Posts: 712
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 5:06:37 PM
Quote:
I think that the M2 handheld flamethrower used by US forces used napalm. But that was near the end of the war. It was used later in Korea and in Vietnam too.

I don't know when the conversion from pressurized gas to napalm occurred.


The first portable flame thrower developed for the use of napalm as a fuel was the M1A1, between August 1942 and early 1943. The improved M2-2 was developed later in 1944.

Pressurized gas was the propellant source in portable flame throwers, not the flame source. The M1A1 and M2-2 were both pressurized gas systems using compressed nitrogen.
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 5:33:43 PM
TodayIlearned.
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 7:31:41 PM
Quote:


Editing: I failed to acknowledge the “ Greek Fire” of more ancient times.

Regards, Phil


Hi Phil,

Greek Fire really was the wonder weapon of its time. Oft imitated but never replicated, the flamethrower of late antiquity / early medieval era kept the Eastern Romans going when they were surrounded on all sides, with the capital blockaded by Arab fleets. Roman fleets routinely routed enemy forces larger than their own; combined with the formidable Byzantine army, the military and naval forces of the Emperor more than held their own for hundreds of years after their western compatriots disintegrated.

The composition of Greek Fire was the most heavily guarded state secret; probably only a handful of people knew its entire recipe. It was created in compartments, so that nobody could be bribed or kidnapped to hand over the recipe in full.

We know that it burned harder when water was thrown on its flame, and that the flame could ignite items under water. It probably was very close to napalm, but it seems to have gone out of use in the late twelfth century, with its secret lost forever when the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. Perhaps the last artisans were killed during the sack, or perhaps it ceased being of use against ships increasingly wary of its use. In any case, the presence of flame weapons has terrified throughout history; I suppose they always will.

Cheers,

Colin


----------------------------------
"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 7:34:48 PM
Quote:


So a brilliant inventor and despite his US citizenship, he is acclaimed here as a son of Canada. Forgive us please, Scotland.


George


That’s fighting talk, George! 😀

I can accept a dual claim, however; he was born over here after all!

Thanks for a wonderful post, one of your very best and that’s high standard to begin with.

Cheers,

Colin
----------------------------------
"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/15/2023 8:04:42 PM
Quote:
Quote:


So a brilliant inventor and despite his US citizenship, he is acclaimed here as a son of Canada. Forgive us please, Scotland.


George


That’s fighting talk, George! 😀

I can accept a dual claim, however; he was born over here after all!

Thanks for a wonderful post, one of your very best and that’s high standard to begin with.

Cheers,

Colin



Thank you, Colin

George
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 3:59:05 AM
Quote:
Quote:


Editing: I failed to acknowledge the “ Greek Fire” of more ancient times.

Regards, Phil


Hi Phil,

Greek Fire really was the wonder weapon of its time. Oft imitated but never replicated, the flamethrower of late antiquity / early medieval era kept the Eastern Romans going when they were surrounded on all sides, with the capital blockaded by Arab fleets. Roman fleets routinely routed enemy forces larger than their own; combined with the formidable Byzantine army, the military and naval forces of the Emperor more than held their own for hundreds of years after their western compatriots disintegrated.

The composition of Greek Fire was the most heavily guarded state secret; probably only a handful of people knew its entire recipe. It was created in compartments, so that nobody could be bribed or kidnapped to hand over the recipe in full.

We know that it burned harder when water was thrown on its flame, and that the flame could ignite items under water. It probably was very close to napalm, but it seems to have gone out of use in the late twelfth century, with its secret lost forever when the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. Perhaps the last artisans were killed during the sack, or perhaps it ceased being of use against ships increasingly wary of its use. In any case, the presence of flame weapons has terrified throughout history; I suppose they always will.

Cheers,

Colin




Colin,

There was a resurrection of this method of warfare planned by the British which was ready for use along the beaches of the coast that were vulnerable to German invasion in the dark days of 1940-41.

It entailed the sea being set on fire .

Someone told me, in a know all and conspiratorial manner, that this was kept secret in order to protect the sensibilities of the British public, whose sense of fair play would be outraged by the use of such an atrocious weapon.


At this I lost patience, and reminded him that the use of flame had been sanctioned and practiced in the battles of the First World War, and that British people were reconciled to its use in 1940, and would have been enthusiastic advocates of its use if invaders were tempted to set foot on home soil.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 6:51:18 AM
Didn't the British use fire ships to disrupt the Spanish Armada?
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 8:05:47 AM
Topics for 3-16 in history!? For example below, comments anyone??

1322 the battle of Boroughbridge, an early battle towards Scottish Independence! Anyone with details on it? Was Brave heart involved??

1621 A native American Chief Visits Plymouth Mass. Colony! He at this time didn't realize the Pale faces had nothing good for him! What say you??

1834 Charles Darwin lands on Britain's recently acquired Falkland Islands! How did the UK get these Islands? What was Darwin doing there?? Comments, anyone?

1861 Mr. Edward Clark is appointed governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who wouldn't support the Confederacy! So Texans lost support for him? But. Sam was right on but most Texans didn't believe him!? They paid a steep price! What say you??

1882 the senate ratifies the Red Cross at the 1st Geneva Convention! Does Canada & other western counties use the Red Cross?? & how effective was the Geneva Convention anyway? Anyone?

1915 2 RN battlecruisers, HMS Inflexable, & HMS Irristable, hit mines in the Dardinelles! What happens on land near bye because of it? Anyone have the tragic story on this? How does it effect. WWI in this area??

1916 US & Canada have a Migratory Bird Treaty! What does this encompass for our feathered friends?? What say you?

1921 Britain signs trade treaty with Russia despite US protests! What's up with that??

1922 Egypt becomes independent from the British Empire! How did this go down? Comments?

1935 Hitler orders a re-armmament of Germany over the Geneva Conventions set guide lines! Did anyone do anything about this?? Why not? Anyone??

1940 Luftwaffe attack on RN Fleet at Scapa-Flow, how successful was it? Geeze how many ships are at the bottom of this harbor? What else happened there? Anyone?

1945 Weisberg Germany is 90% destroyed by RN Bombers, with 5,000 dead in only 20 minutes! Why was this mission so effective? What happened to the German defenses? Anyone??

1955 Eisenhower upholds US use of Atomic Weapons! Is it a real possibility of use today with Russia in the Ukraine? Or a bluff? What say you??

Lots to discuss here!?
Any new topics??
Carry on!
MD

BTW Phil, & OP,

IIRC, Greek fire in Fireships was used by both the RN & their adversaries in the 1700's, 1800's as well!? And Greek fire was used by the Confederates in a raid on NY City??
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 8:33:31 AM
Let’s not forget the “ Swamp Angel” gun that the yankees set up at the siege of Charleston in the Civil War. It was intended to fire an incendiary missile into the secessionist city, and even, perhaps, some kind of toxic projectile, but it didn’t work.

About fifty years ago I had an interesting encounter in a pub with a retired senior officer from the British army, who confided in me that, in the closing days of WW2, he and his soldiers had been confronted by some fanatical Nazi troops who refused to surrender.

They were warned that if they insisted on fighting, flame would be used against them.

They were defiant, and were burned alive.

The gentleman telling me this story was clearly appalled at the memory and I haven’t forgotten the conversation.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 8:40:40 AM
American Literature Notes.

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s story of adultery and betrayal in colonial America, The Scarlet Letter, is published.

Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1804. Although the infamous Salem witch trials had taken place more than 100 years earlier, the events still hung over the town and made a lasting impression on the young Hawthorne. Witchcraft figured in several of his works, including Young Goodman Brown (1835) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851), in which a house is cursed by a wizard condemned by the witch trials.

After attending Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, Hawthorne returned to Salem, where he began his career as a writer. He self-published his first book, Fanshawe (1828), but tried to destroy all copies shortly after publication. He later wrote several books of short stories, including Twice Told Tales (1837). In 1841, he tried his hand at communal living at the agricultural cooperative Brook Farm but came away highly disillusioned by the experience, which he fictionalized in his novel The Blithedale Romance(1852).

Hawthorne married Sophia Peabody in 1842, having at last earned enough money from his writing to start a family. The two lived in a house called the Old Manse, in Concord, Massachusetts, and socialized with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Branson Alcott, father of writer Louisa May Alcott.

Plagued by financial difficulties as his family grew, he took a job in 1845 at Salem’s custom house, where he worked for three years. After leaving the job, he spent several months writing The Scarlet Letter, which made him famous.

In 1853, Hawthorne’s old college friend, President Franklin Pierce, appointed him American consul to England, and the family moved to England, where they lived for three years. Hawthorne died in Plymouth, New Hampshire, in 1864.


saymedia.com
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-scarlet-letter-is-published

================================================== ================================================== =====================================

I read both "The Scarlet Letter" and "Young Goodman Brown" in high school as required reading.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 11:10:02 AM
Quote:
Let’s not forget the “ Swamp Angel” gun that the yankees set up at the siege of Charleston in the Civil War. It was intended to fire an incendiary missile into the secessionist city, and even, perhaps, some kind of toxic projectile, but it didn’t work.

Regards, Phil




Hi Phil,

Thank goodness it didn't work, Just visited Charleston, SC. & Savannah, Ga. Which was also spared! What beautiful historic cities they both are!?? US history would be poorer if they had been destroyed!!! Really Sherman was not as bad as some historians have painted him to be!?

Cheers,
MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 11:38:23 AM
Rainbow Row in Charleston is quite a site. Best viewed from the boat out to Sumter.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 1:05:32 PM
On my wish list : a flight from London to Boston, a tour of Abolitionist New England, followed by a flight to Charleston SC to see the Secessionist counterpart !

Regards, Phil
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"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 1:06:30 PM
Quote:
Didn't the British use fire ships to disrupt the Spanish Armada?


Yes, the English Royal Navy sent in fireships when the Armada got holed up at Calais waiting for the Spanish army to arrive to be transported. The damage caued was minimal (as was the damaged caused by the English broadsides), but the fear of fire ultimately led to the fleet being scattered and the invasion aborted.

Cheers,

Colin
----------------------------------
"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 1:07:57 PM
Quote:


Really Sherman was not as bad as some historians have painted him to be!?

MD


This is a topic in itself, but I would say Sherman was brutally effective and efficient in accomplishing his goal of crushing the Confederacy. I don't think 'bad' comes into it.

Cheers,

Colin
----------------------------------
"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 1:10:35 PM
Quote:
Let’s not forget the “ Swamp Angel” gun that the yankees set up at the siege of Charleston in the Civil War. It was intended to fire an incendiary missile into the secessionist city, and even, perhaps, some kind of toxic projectile, but it didn’t work.

About fifty years ago I had an interesting encounter in a pub with a retired senior officer from the British army, who confided in me that, in the closing days of WW2, he and his soldiers had been confronted by some fanatical Nazi troops who refused to surrender.

They were warned that if they insisted on fighting, flame would be used against them.

They were defiant, and were burned alive.

The gentleman telling me this story was clearly appalled at the memory and I haven’t forgotten the conversation.

Regards, Phil


Hi Phil,

Sometimes it's the stories the old veterans told after a couple of jars that revealed the worst of it. The knowing nods, looks and half-finished sentences. It's heartbreaking to see and hear.

I can remember being a wee lad, visiting my great-gran in her care home and being told by a very old, very emotional gent (a fellow resident) about how lucky I was I wouldn't have to go through what he did. In hindsight, he would have been old enough to have been a full grown man in the First World War. His face has never left me.

Cheers,

Colin
----------------------------------
"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 1:50:36 PM
Quote:
Quote:


Really Sherman was not as bad as some historians have painted him to be!?

MD


This is a topic in itself, but I would say Sherman was brutally effective and efficient in accomplishing his goal of crushing the Confederacy. I don't think 'bad' comes into it.

Cheers,

Colin


Like other harsh practitioners of war, having done the job of crushing the enemy, Sherman argued for a more gentle peace.

Am I right ?

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Brian Grafton
Victoria BC Canada
Posts: 4811
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 8:25:32 PM
Quote:
1945 Weisberg Germany is 90% destroyed by RN Bombers, with 5,000 dead in only 20 minutes! Why was this mission so effective? What happened to the German defenses? Anyone??

MD, are you thinking of Würzburg (sometimes called Würtzburg)? RAF BC had a relatively busy bombing schedule that night, with a total of 717 sorties and 30 a/c (4.2%) lost. The two major raids were against Nuremburg (293 a/c; 24 lost) and Würzburg (225 Lancs and 11 Mosquitoes; 6 Lancs lost).

Martin Middlebrook (RAF Bomber Command War Diaries, p 682) offers the following comments: “This was another dramatic and devastating blow by 5 Group. 1,127 tons of bombs were dropped with great accuracy in 17 minutes. According to a post-war survey, the old cathedral city with its famous historic building suffered 89 per cent of its built-up area destroyed. Würzberg contained little industry and this was an area attack. Estimates of the number of dead vary from 4,000 to 5,000. No further details are available.”

My own assessment is that the assault on Würzburg was not a necessary attack, and did little to further undermine a by-then severely weakened German military support capability. It was a town on a list of potential target cities, and had both rail and water transportation facilities, along with some pre-war military facilities, but the assessment which kept it on BC’s list was based on pre-war assessments, and had not been updated since 1939. This would be the first RAF BC assault directed specifically against Würzburg, and given that a total of only225 Lancs (with 11 Mosquito markers and pathfinders), it was not considered a major target. It was simply a relatively small German city whose name was still on the RAF BC books as unbombed. An obscene raid, in many raids, and perhaps one of those which would lead to such an intense reaction after the war.

In 2003, Herman Knell – who lived through both British and IIRC US assaults on Würtzburg – published To Destroy a City: Strategic Bombing and Its Human Consequences in World War II. After the war, Knell emigrated to Canada, where he became an engineer. On his retirement, he wrote what I consider to be an excellent study of the bomber war and possible alternatives. It’s a good read. Oddly, it appears to be available in hardcover on Amazon for under $20, while getting it in Kindle costs more than $25!

Cheers
Brian G

----------------------------------
"We have met the enemy, and he is us." Walt Kelly. "The Best Things in Life Aren't Things" Bumper sticker.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/16/2023 9:18:38 PM
Quote:
1916 US & Canada have a Migratory Bird Treaty! What does this encompass for our feathered friends?? What say you?


Canada's primary concern at this time in our history was the events surrounding WW1 so it is surprising that time was taken to try to provide protection for migratory birds that know no borders as they move from place to place in North America.

Interesting as well that Britain actually signed this treaty which we call a convention, on behalf of Canada. Canada did not have full control of its foreign policy. Sovereignty was paid for in blood however and by 1923 another treaty with the US had been negotiated and signed by Canada. This Halibut Treaty was independently negotiated and signed by Canada alone.

It seems then that both Canada and the US had environmental concerns and preservation of species on their mind in this period of our history though the preservation of halibut stocks in the north Pacific was also an economic issue.

The Migratory Bird convention of 1916 only applied to migratory birds that humans considered useful. Many birds didn't make the list because they were considered undesirable. So research tells us that grouse, quail, pheasants, ptarmigan, hawks, owls, eagles, falcons, cormorants, pelicans, crows, jays, kingfishers, and some species of blackbirds were not protected in 1916.

Still over 1000 birds did make the protected list.

The treaty has been updated many times to provide protective standards to birds that are hunted too.

Cheers,

George
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 6:51:51 AM
American Revolution Notes- British chased out of Boston.

On March 17, 1776, British forces are forced to evacuate Boston following General George Washington’s successful placement of fortifications and cannons on Dorchester Heights, which overlooks the city from the south.

During the evening of March 4, Major General John Thomas, under orders from Washington, secretly led a force of 800 soldiers and 1,200 workers to Dorchester Heights and began fortifying the area. To cover the sound of the construction, American cannons, besieging Boston from another location, began a noisy bombardment of the outskirts of the city. By the morning, more than a dozen cannons from Fort Ticonderoga had been brought within the Dorchester Heights fortifications. British General Sir William Howe hoped to use the British ships in Boston Harbor to destroy the American position, but a storm set in, giving the Americans ample time to complete the fortifications and set up their artillery. Realizing their position was now indefensible, 11,000 British troops and some 1,000 Loyalists departed Boston by ship on March 17, sailing to the safety of Halifax, Nova Scotia.

The bloodless liberation of Boston by the Patriots brought an end to a hated eight-year British occupation of the city, known for such infamous events as the “Boston Massacre,” in which five colonists were shot and killed by British soldiers. The British fleet had first entered Boston Harbor on October 2, 1768, carrying 1,000 soldiers. Having soldiers living among them in tents on Boston Common—a standing army in 18th-century parlance—infuriated Bostonians.​

For the victory, General Washington, commander of the Continental Army, was presented with the first medal ever awarded by the Continental Congress.



https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/british-evacuate-boston?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0317-03172023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2

===================================================================================================================================================

A couple of thoughts...
1. I wonder of the Irish had anything to do with chasing the British out of Boston?

2. The British never did return to fight there.

3. A grateful United States elected George Washington to be our first President.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 8:37:17 AM
Quote:
Quote:
1945 Weisberg Germany is 90% destroyed by RN Bombers, with 5,000 dead in only 20 minutes! Why was this mission so effective? What happened to the German defenses? Anyone??

MD, are you thinking of Würzburg (sometimes called Würtzburg)? RAF BC had a relatively busy bombing schedule that night, with a total of 717 sorties and 30 a/c (4.2%) lost. The two major raids were against Nuremburg (293 a/c; 24 lost) and Würzburg (225 Lancs and 11 Mosquitoes; 6 Lancs lost).

Martin Middlebrook (RAF Bomber Command War Diaries[/], p 682) offers the following comments: “This was another dramatic and devastating blow by 5 Group. 1,127 tons of bombs were dropped with great accuracy in 17 minutes. According to a post-war survey, the old cathedral city with its famous historic building suffered 89 per cent of its built-up area destroyed. Würzberg contained little industry and this was an area attack. Estimates of the number of dead vary from 4,000 to 5,000. No further details are available.”

My own assessment is that the assault on Würzburg was not a necessary attack, and did little to further undermine a by-then severely weakened German military support capability. It was a town on a list of potential target cities, and had both rail and water transportation facilities, along with some pre-war military facilities, but the assessment which kept it on BC’s list was based on pre-war assessments, and had not been updated since 1939. This would be the first RAF BC assault directed specifically against Würzburg, and given that a total of only225 Lancs (with 11 Mosquito markers and pathfinders), it was not considered a major target. It was simply a relatively small German city whose name was still on the RAF BC books as unbombed. An obscene raid, in many raids, and perhaps one of those which would lead to such an intense reaction after the war.

In 2003, Herman Knell – who lived through both British and IIRC US assaults on Würtzburg – published To Destroy a City: Strategic Bombing and Its Human Consequences in World War II. After the war, Knell emigrated to Canada, where he became an engineer. On his retirement, he wrote what I consider to be an excellent study of the bomber war and possible alternatives. It’s a good read. Oddly, it appears to be available in hardcover on Amazon for under $20, while getting it in Kindle costs more than $25!

Cheers
Brian G




Hi Brian,

Thanks for the spell check on Wurtzburg, but more importantly your take on the mission! BC had it on the list of unbombed German cities, & considering that the Luftwaffe never considered that they were bombing civilian areas!

I guess all is fair in love & war!?

Regards,
MD

BTW today in history is Saint Patrick's Day! Hey MHO'ers have a good one!!!
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 12:23:03 PM
Quote:
The bloodless liberation of Boston by the Patriots brought an end to a hated eight-year British occupation of the city, known for such infamous events as the “Boston Massacre,” in which five colonists were shot and killed by British soldiers. The British fleet had first entered Boston Harbor on October 2, 1768, carrying 1,000 soldiers. Having soldiers living among them in tents on Boston Common—a standing army in 18th-century parlance—infuriated Bostonians.​


The expression, "Boston Massacre" was coined by one of the propagandists on the insurrectionist side. It was hardly that and if used in any historical account, the so called "massacre" deserves to be fairly described. The single soldier sent to guard a government building, the Customs house I believe, was placed in a position whereby his life was in danger at the hands of an unruly mob.

He was pelted with rocks, ice and even coal and of course, verbally abused. The other soldiers (6, I think) were marched with their Captain Preston to protect the building and to support the single sentry. We have recent reminders of the abuse that law officers absorbed at the invasion of the Capital buildings in Washington. I see parallels.

A single soldier fired after having been knocked down with some thrown object. The others fired but were stopped by their officer.

The were defended by John Adams who would become President and all but two were exonerated and those two received minor punishments. I find it odd that Adams defended the soldiers so vigorously when he initially had used the event to gin up hatred of the British and to demand that the British authorities remove them from the city. What was his motive or was he sincerely motivated by a belief that everyone is entitled to a fair trial as a British subject.

But thanks to the exceptional work of the propaganda wing of the insurrectionist arm, the event goes down in US history as a massacre.

Of note, Paul Revere took it upon himself to print an engraving of an artist's rendering of the event which was inaccurate and seemed to indicate British soldiers in line firing a volley en masse. Didn't happen. But excellent propaganda.






NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 1:43:29 PM
Well, according to the actual history of the event,....The single soldier did fight back and did strike a Bostonian with his bayonet. Someone did say "Fire", and the soldiers did fire into the unarmed mob, murdering 5 Americans. Whether they fired a volley or didn't is what my lawyer friends say is moot. They did fire and 5 Americans were murdered.

Adams did vigorously defend the soldiers as he knew that only in a civilized country could the soldiers receive a fair trial. And they did!!

And since we defeated GB, and were declared the victors, we can let the victors write the history.

On another note...we New York Yankee Baseball fans refer to a 2nd Boston Massacre in 1978, when the Yankees ventured into Fenway Park and took 4 games from the Red Sox.

Cheers,
NYGiant

OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 1:51:36 PM
The term "the victors write the history" comes from the days when there were no defeated to write anything. I give you the Vietnam War as evidence this isn't true today.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6508
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 2:58:59 PM
There was a brilliant TV docu - drama about John Adams, starring Paul Giamatti in the title role.

This was broadcast in 2008, and, apart from the revelation of Giamatti as one of the best - if not the best- actors I’ve ever seen, the depiction of this episode was meticulously balanced and left me with profound admiration for the way the story was pitched.

Wholeheartedly recommended if you have a few hours to spare.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
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