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NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 3:26:02 PM
Quote:
The term "the victors write the history" comes from the days when there were no defeated to write anything. I give you the Vietnam War as evidence this isn't true today.


Well, since the Baby Boomers forced the US to end the war, we Boomers were the victors, and the released Pentagon Papers, justified ending a wrongful war, and justified our actions.

Of course, that is my humble interpretation of events.

Cheers,
NYGiant
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 4:16:34 PM
Quote:
Well, according to the actual history of the event,....The single soldier did fight back and did strike a Bostonian with his bayonet. Someone did say "Fire", and the soldiers did fire into the unarmed mob, murdering 5 Americans. Whether they fired a volley or didn't is what my lawyer friends say is moot. They did fire and 5 Americans were murdered.

Adams did vigorously defend the soldiers as he knew that only in a civilized country could the soldiers receive a fair trial. And they did!!

And since we defeated GB, and were declared the victors, we can let the victors write the history.

On another note...we New York Yankee Baseball fans refer to a 2nd Boston Massacre in 1978, when the Yankees ventured into Fenway Park and took 4 games from the Red Sox.

Cheers,
NYGiant



No Sir. They were not unarmed and they had been hurling projectiles for quite a while. Several of the mob had swung clubs to hit the barrels of the muskets. They were goading the soldiers and challenging them to shoot. The discipline of the soldiers was quite good but challenged when one soldier was knocked to the ground.

There was no co-ordinated attack by the soldiers. The accounts that I have read suggest that the single soldier got up and fired. The others thought that they heard the command to fire. By the time that Capt. Preston regained control, five people were dead. And there was no murder and no conviction for murder.

As well, the people killed were not Americans. They were British subjects engaged in an act of civil disobedience that had turned ugly.

Victors do write the history and sometimes they get it wrong compelling others to write about those errors.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 4:19:23 PM
Quote:
There was a brilliant TV docu - drama about John Adams, starring Paul Giamatti in the title role.

This was broadcast in 2008, and, apart from the revelation of Giamatti as one of the best - if not the best- actors I’ve ever seen, the depiction of this episode was meticulously balanced and left me with profound admiration for the way the story was pitched.

Wholeheartedly recommended if you have a few hours to spare.

Regards, Phil


I concur Phil. It was an excellent piece.

Cheers,

George
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 4:46:42 PM
The British were armed with Brown Bess muskets. The Americans were armed with snowballs, small stones and sticks. Hardly a fair fight. More indicative of poorly led and poorly disciplined soldiers.



9 soldiers fired and 5 Americans were murdered. And if I recall, they were not found to be innocent of murder, but were found to be not guilty of murder. Maybe another jury would have fond them guilty?

Even their lawyer, John Adams, said that the defendants were most guilty of manslaughter.





Cheers,
NYGiant
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 5:49:55 PM
Topics for 3-16 in history not commented on yet? For example below, comments anyone??

1322 the battle of Boroughbridge, an early battle towards Scottish Independence! Anyone with details on it? Was Brave heart involved??

1621 A native American Chief Visits Plymouth Mass. Colony! He at this time didn't realize the Pale faces had nothing good for him! What say you??

1834 Charles Darwin lands on Britain's recently acquired Falkland Islands! How did the UK get these Islands? What was Darwin doing there?? Comments, anyone?

1861 Mr. Edward Clark is appointed governor of Texas, replacing Sam Houston, who wouldn't support the Confederacy! So Texans lost support for him? But. Sam was right on but most Texans didn't believe him!? They paid a steep price! What say you??

1882 the senate ratifies the Red Cross at the 1st Geneva Convention! Does Canada & other western counties use the Red Cross?? & how effective was the Geneva Convention anyway? Anyone?

1915 2 RN battlecruisers, HMS Inflexable, & HMS Irristable, hit mines in the Dardinelles! What happens on land near bye because of it? Anyone have the tragic story on this? How does it effect. WWI in this area? & how was WSC involved??

1921 Britain signs trade treaty with Russia despite US protests! What's up with that??

1922 Egypt becomes independent from the British Empire! How did this go down? Comments?

1935 Hitler orders a re-armmament of Germany over the Geneva Conventions set guide lines! Did anyone do anything about this?? Why not? Anyone??

1940 Luftwaffe attack on RN Fleet at Scapa-Flow, how successful was it? Geeze how many ships are at the bottom of this harbor? What else happened there? Anyone?

1955 Eisenhower upholds US use of Atomic Weapons! Is it a real possibility of use today with Russia in the Ukraine? Or a bluff? What say you??

Lots to discuss here!?
Any new topics??
Carry on!
MD

Today 3-17

461 CE St. Patrick dies, he did convert the Irish Nation to Catholicism! He must of did a good job considering they're still Catholic today despite the efforts of the English! Comments on St Patrick, & why he means so much to the Irish!? & just why were the English, & the Irish at such odds over this?? Anyone??
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 6:54:46 PM
Quote:
The British were armed with Brown Bess muskets. The Americans were armed with snowballs, small stones and sticks. Hardly a fair fight. More indicative of poorly led and poorly disciplined soldiers.



9 soldiers fired and 5 Americans were murdered. And if I recall, they were not found to be innocent of murder, but were found to be not guilty of murder. Maybe another jury would have fond them guilty?

Even their lawyer, John Adams, said that the defendants were most guilty of manslaughter.





Cheers,
NYGiant



So they were not murderers. That's what you are saying.

No malice insisted John Adams and so it was found. Not guilty of murder.

8 scared men facing over 100 angry people in a mob. The soldiers were struck with flying objects. They were assaulted.

The verdict. Not guilty of murder. 2 men found guilty of manslaughter but John Adams used a precedent established in British law called "plea of clergy" to keep them out of jail. The two were branded on their thumbs but that is it.

Even though the people, ginned up to a fever pitch by people like Samuel Adams and the smuggler John Hancock, demanded a guilty verdict for murder and subsequent punishment of death, British justice prevailed.

[Read More]
vpatrick
MA MA USA
Posts: 2522
Joined: 2020
This day in World History! Continued
3/17/2023 9:20:46 PM
George

really? They say stupidity is doing something wrong over and over again, NY is trying to get a rise again


I know your not stupid

Happy Saint Pats!

vpatrick

----------------------------------
nuts
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 4:38:16 AM
Quote:
Quote:
There was a brilliant TV docu - drama about John Adams, starring Paul Giamatti in the title role.

This was broadcast in 2008, and, apart from the revelation of Giamatti as one of the best - if not the best- actors I’ve ever seen, the depiction of this episode was meticulously balanced and left me with profound admiration for the way the story was pitched.

Wholeheartedly recommended if you have a few hours to spare.

Regards, Phil


I concur Phil. It was an excellent piece.

Cheers,

George


Paul Giamatti, along with Glenn Close, are two American actors who can pitch a perfect British accent, which is not easy. I don’t think that many British actors can reciprocate and deploy an American accent so well.

That John Adams series certainly made it apparent how “ British “ the Americans were in those days, at least in the context of Massachusetts and its environs.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 7:07:25 AM
American Revolution Notes- Parliament repeals the Illegal Stamp Act.

After four months of widespread protest in America, the British Parliamentrepeals the Stamp Act, a taxation measure enacted to raise revenues for a standing British army in America.

The Stamp Act was passed on March 22, 1765, leading to an uproar in the colonies over an issue that was to be a major cause of the Revolution: taxation without representation. Enacted in November 1765, the controversial act forced colonists to buy a British stamp for every official document they obtained. The stamp itself displayed an image of a Tudor rose framed by the word “America” and the French phrase Honi soit qui mal y pense–“Shame to him who thinks evil of it.”

The colonists, who had convened the Stamp Act Congress in October 1765 to vocalize their opposition to the impending enactment, greeted the arrival of the stamps with outrage and violence. Most Americans called for a boycott of British goods, and some organized attacks on the customhouses and homes of tax collectors. After months of protest, and an appeal by Benjamin Franklin before the British House of Commons, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act in March 1766. However, the same day, Parliament passed the Declaratory Acts, asserting that the British government had free and total legislative power over the colonies.



https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/parliament-repeals-the-stamp-act?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0318-03182023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
====================================================================================================================================

All America students learn about the illegal Stamp Act, and the American declaration of No Taxation without Representation.

NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 7:11:54 AM
Quote:
Quote:
The British were armed with Brown Bess muskets. The Americans were armed with snowballs, small stones and sticks. Hardly a fair fight. More indicative of poorly led and poorly disciplined soldiers.



9 soldiers fired and 5 Americans were murdered. And if I recall, they were not found to be innocent of murder, but were found to be not guilty of murder. Maybe another jury would have fond them guilty?

Even their lawyer, John Adams, said that the defendants were most guilty of manslaughter.





Cheers,
NYGiant



So they were not murderers. That's what you are saying.

No malice insisted John Adams and so it was found. Not guilty of murder.

8 scared men facing over 100 angry people in a mob. The soldiers were struck with flying objects. They were assaulted.

The verdict. Not guilty of murder. 2 men found guilty of manslaughter but John Adams used a precedent established in British law called "plea of clergy" to keep them out of jail. The two were branded on their thumbs but that is it.

Even though the people, ginned up to a fever pitch by people like Samuel Adams and the smuggler John Hancock, demanded a guilty verdict for murder and subsequent punishment of death, British justice prevailed.

[Read More]



The fact they received a fair trial, was proof enough of the superiority of American Jurisprudence.

However, they were not found to be innocent.
Can you find a source that says the people drank gin? I thought it would have been rum.
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 7:16:57 AM
Quote:
George

really? They say stupidity is doing something wrong over and over again, NY is trying to get a rise again


I know your not stupid






The quote is actually....“Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results."

There...I corrected your comment for you!
You're welcome!


Cheers,
NYGiant
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 8:13:45 AM
Quote:
George

really? They say stupidity is doing something wrong over and over again, NY is trying to get a rise again


I know your not stupid

Happy Saint Pats!

vpatrick




I appreciate your concern, Vin. But I do have a concern with NYGiant's participation in that he purposely deals in half truths and treats us every day with a post from a website that spreads points of view and facts that are, at times, specious. Example: Calling the Boston Massacre an act of the murder of 5 Americans is a shoddy and shallow treatment of an event in history, an event that was used masterfully in the propaganda war featured in this conflict.

It concerns me that others may read his BS and assume that the subject or issue has been assessed fairly. So, what to do? If I ignore him he will continue to spout information constructed in a manner to reveal only an American bias.

If I engage, I am treated to his continual restatement of the same tired point of view even if disabused of his ideas.

You're correct though. He is baiting. Sadly, that seems to be his objective.

Cheers,

George
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 8:15:07 AM
I try to address the issues, not the issuer.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 8:18:23 AM
Quote:
I try to address the issues, not the issuer.



And if the issuer indicates that he is unwilling to engage in discussion? BTW, I do not approve of ad hominem attacks either but there was a time when this forum was moderated and certain behaviours discouraged.

Cheers,

George
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 8:29:05 AM
Hey guys,

Here's a few events from 3-18 in history, any new topics or comments??

1766 Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, If the British had been more in tuned to their N. American Colonies, could they have avoided the Revolutionary war?? What say you?

1869 Neville Chamberlain was born! Do you think history has been unfairly harsh to him because of his peace in our time statement, after meeting with Hitler, he was portrayed as a fool? Anyone?

1932 Novelist John Updike was born, what was his take on religion & politics in America? Comments, & quotes on Updike??

2012 Tupou VI becomes King of Tonga, Do you know the Tongans & Fijians held competitions where the losers would get eaten!? Comments anyone?

2017 Chuck Berry dies at 90, where would you rate him as a R & B, & Rock performer??

Let's again try not to be abrasive in our comments to other members!

Peace,
MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 9:56:58 AM
"1869 Neville Chamberlain was born! Do you think history has been unfairly harsh to him because of his peace in our time statement, after meeting with Hitler, he was portrayed as a fool? Anyone?"

Since the Brits have released the papers of Chamberlain, historians and researchers have developed a clearer picture of the narrow number of options available to Great Britain and to Chamberlain. Bottom line is, there wasn't much he could have done.

The British Army was not ready for war in September, 1938, and would have been able to send only 2 army divisions to the continent and was not intended for continental warfare. Re-armament of the Royal Air Force and the Royal navy had not been finalized. In March 1938 the British military chiefs of staff produced a report that concluded that Britain could not possibly stop Germany from taking Czechoslovakia. The British military’s confidence in its abilities was far higher in 1939 than it was during the Munich crisis, especially because of the development of radar and the deployment of new fighter planes. In 1939, the military believed it was ready. In 1938, it didn’t.

The British public was not ready for war.

After WW1, GB found itself more and more dependent on foreign sources of commodities such as a quarter of its total food supplies, and fully half of its cereal requirements. After WW2, GB was still under wartime rationing until 1954.

Diplomatically, could Great Britain count on the rest of the British Empire to aid GB in a war with Germany? Ties with India were loosened. The Statue of Westminster "itself recognized the sovereign right of each dominion to control its own domestic and foreign affairs, to establish its own diplomatic corps, and (except for Newfoundland) to be separately represented in the League of Nations. It was also stated that “no law hereafter made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom” or by any dominion parliament “shall extend to any of the said Dominions as part of the law of that Dominion otherwise than at the request and at the consent of that Dominion. The statute left many difficult legal and constitutional questions unsettled—e.g., the functions of the Crown, the possibility of one or more of the autonomous communities remaining neutral while others are at war, and so forth—but mutual forbearance and constant consultation between the different units made the formula remarkably successful in operation."

https://www.britannica.com/event/Statute-of-Westminster


I wonder how much consideration Chamberlain gave to the history of WW1 and the Gallipoli fiasco, and to the loss of a generation of Englishmen on the fields of France and Flanders?






Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 11:13:43 AM
Chamberlain was indeed profoundly affected by the memory of 1814-18.

He lost a beloved cousin, and, of course, virtually every British family experienced the trauma of loss to a greater or lesser extent in that hideous war.

OTOH, Chamberlain himself had not served in the military during the war.

But many of the anti appeasers - Eden, Churchill, MacMillan , to name but three- had served in battle, and, instead of advocating the “Peace in our time” stance, argued that determination to fight was the safer - and more honourable- course.

It’s ironic that Chamberlain, and many of his contemporaries, recoiling from the memory of WW1, imagined that another conflict would be far worse.

In the event, the British loss of life 1939-45 paled beside that of 1914-18.

Regards, Phil
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"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 12:13:27 PM
Quote:
Diplomatically, could Great Britain count on the rest of the British Empire to aid GB in a war with Germany? Ties with India were loosened. The Statue of Westminster "itself recognized the sovereign right of each dominion to control its own domestic and foreign affairs, to establish its own diplomatic corps, and (except for Newfoundland) to be separately represented in the League of Nations. It was also stated that “no law hereafter made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom” or by any dominion parliament “shall extend to any of the said Dominions as part of the law of that Dominion otherwise than at the request and at the consent of that Dominion. The statute left many difficult legal and constitutional questions unsettled—e.g., the functions of the Crown, the possibility of one or more of the autonomous communities remaining neutral while others are at war, and so forth—but mutual forbearance and constant consultation between the different units made the formula remarkably successful in operation."


There is a considerable difference between India and the "white" Dominions. As I recall, India was not granted Dominion status until after WWII and that only lasted for a few years until independence was formalized in 1950.

I should speak only for Canada but I believe that while the Dominions of Canada, Australia and NZ had negotiated for decades for the rights vis a vis foreign policy to be codified, there was little doubt that those Dominions would not support the mother country. While Canada waited until Sept. 10 to declare war, I am quite certain that the only questions surrounding participation were not "will they?" but "how much?". The decision of course was fully that of Canada's but the country would not have accepted a decision by Parliament to refuse to aid Great Britain.

Entry to the war was not accompanied by the great and passionate displays of emotion as it was in WW1. Rather there was an air of resignation about going to war against Germany. A job had to be done and Canada knew that it would be part of it, Statute of Westminster or not. And for the most part the 1.1 million people in uniform were all volunteers. When conscription was voted upon and accepted, a large body of men had been registered for the protection of the homeland. King was reluctant to send these conscripts to Europe and kept them in Canada until late 1944. Only 13,000 were sent overseas and fewer than 3000 actually got into combat. Only 69 died. And so I think that we can see that the volunteer rate for a country of 11 million was quite high but even that proved to be inadequate.

However, it does indicate to me anyway that the will of the English speaking people of Canada was to fight alongside Great Britain.

PM Mackenzie King remembered horrendous losses of the Great War and he also remembered that the conscription issue of 1917 nearly destroyed the country. He did not wish to repeat the scenario and hoped to fight a war of acceptable commitment with fewer losses. That scenario did not materialize and King was forced to commit to all out war and near the end of the war he was forced to address the issue conscription once again.

As for India, it did not have the independence experienced by the Dominions. It was controlled by Britain though it would be wrong to call the whole country a colony. The British Raj is a difficult social experiment for me to understand. However, India did declare war in Sept. of 1939 and ostensibly it was voluntary. The army that it did contribute was called the British Indian Army and I find that interesting as there was an independence movement at work in the country when war began. Still, India contributed 2.5 million soldiers to the cause and it was the largest potential source of manpower in the Commonwealth.

Cheers,

George
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 1:15:33 PM
George,

Indian independence was gained in 1947.

Indecent haste attended that.

It was if the British defeats at the hands of the Japanese in the Far East had exposed the vulnerability of the Empire : it’s my opinion that Chamberlain and his colleagues were reconciled to Appeasement in 1938 because they recognised that the military resources of the Empire were insufficient to the task of defending it if the Mother Country was going to be protected. Peace in our time ? He failed to gain the peace but he won the time.

British imperial rule in India, Malaya and Burma engendered much grievance among the subject populations . The ensuing Japanese occupation changed some minds.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 2:20:36 PM
Hello Phil,

I realize that Indian independence dates to 1947 but is it not true that India achieved Dominion status at that time making it a Commonwealth country with status equal to that of Great Britain. It would become a republic in 1950.

The interim period of Dominion status was used to write the constitution and to prepare for the withdrawal of the British. Hopefully, I am not confused.

Cheers,

George
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 3:03:42 PM
Quote:
Hello Phil,

I realize that Indian independence dates to 1947 but is it not true that India achieved Dominion status at that time making it a Commonwealth country with status equal to that of Great Britain. It would become a republic in 1950.

The interim period of Dominion status was used to write the constitution and to prepare for the withdrawal of the British. Hopefully, I am not confused.

Cheers,

George


All honour to you, George !

You’ve got that right, and I’m justly chastened.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
vpatrick
MA MA USA
Posts: 2522
Joined: 2020
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 6:06:48 PM
Quote:
Quote:
George

really? They say stupidity is doing something wrong over and over again, NY is trying to get a rise again


I know your not stupid

Happy Saint Pats!

vpatrick




I appreciate your concern, Vin. But I do have a concern with NYGiant's participation in that he purposely deals in half truths and treats us every day with a post from a website that spreads points of view and facts that are, at times, specious. Example: Calling the Boston Massacre an act of the murder of 5 Americans is a shoddy and shallow treatment of an event in history, an event that was used masterfully in the propaganda war featured in this conflict.

It concerns me that others may read his BS and assume that the subject or issue has been assessed fairly. So, what to do? If I ignore him he will continue to spout information constructed in a manner to reveal only an American bias.

If I engage, I am treated to his continual restatement of the same tired point of view even if disabused of his ideas.

You're correct though. He is baiting. Sadly, that seems to be his objective.

Cheers,

George


Living very close to where the Boston Massacre happened while it doesnt make me an expert because of proximity I am somewhat of an expert on the use of force because of my occupation using todays standards concerning use of force I would say the trial of the those soldiers was a just decision that would stand up if it was retried today in court even a current day liberal Massachusetts court. For instance an unarmed Ashley Babbit was shot by officers inside the US congressional building on Jan 6th and to this day there hasnt even been a trial reason being officers were defending a government building against a mob. (Im not being political it was the reasoning of the government and courts right or wrong)

It was hardly murder those soldiers were not only protecting themselves but the customs house which had a large amount of amount of money inside and as said before they were not just snowballs being thrown other weapons were also used such as clubs. Today I am trained to use deadly force if threatened with a knife or any weapon that may lead to my death or taking my weapon to be used on myself or others never mind the fact an important government building is in jeopardy. While some of the soldiers were convicted of manslaughter political forces were probably in play as they are today and were most likely convicted to calm the mobs of Boston. The Boston Massacre was a lightning rod though and I think thats all it was. To simply call it murder and not understanding the nuances of situation I would guess is an effort to bait people on this site who have known different views concerning the American Revolution and it is a known pattern.

While one feels the need to set the record straight this site has few members and there will be less if we entertain stupidity and enable baiting. I will call it out everytime.

[Read More]

vpatrick

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nuts
Lightning
Glasgow  UK
Posts: 1070
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 6:57:03 PM
Appeasement wasn’t a policy designed to buy time to prepare for war; it was a policy designed to avert war altogether. Chamberlain believed that by sacrificing Czechoslovakian sovereignty he has saved Britain and Europe from another devastating war. His intentions were honourable but his methods lamentable. Clearly some thought as such at the time, but were in a minority.

Britain didn’t have army ready for continental warfare in 1938, nor an airforce, but it did have a mighty navy that could have started strangling the German economy immediately. France was ready, as were the Czechoslovaks and the USSR, although Poland was not going to let the Red Army cross their borders to assist.

Nazi Germany wasn’t ready either. Hitler played a blinding game of bluff. The Wermacht would have taken out the Czechoslovak army eventually, but at cost and it would have struggled to defend against a determined French thrust into the Rhineland. 1938 was a missed opportunity to crush Nazism.

What Munich did demonstrate to every observer was that the western allies had tried everything to avert war, so when it finally came almost everyone was resigned to the fact that the war had to be fought. I don’t think there was ever any doubt that Canada, Australia and New Zealand would rise to the occasion; doubts lingered over South Africa, but they still weighed in too. India, on the promise of independence, provided the numbers to eventually drive the Japanese from Burma. It was a true team effort and one that in a thousand generations people will still accept as just.

Cheers,

Colin
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"There is no course open to us but to fight it out. Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
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This day in World History! Continued
3/18/2023 7:50:15 PM
Quote:
Appeasement wasn’t a policy designed to buy time to prepare for war; it was a policy designed to avert war altogether. Chamberlain believed that by sacrificing Czechoslovakian sovereignty he has saved Britain and Europe from another devastating war. His intentions were honourable but his methods lamentable. Clearly some thought as such at the time, but were in a minority.

Britain didn’t have army ready for continental warfare in 1938, nor an airforce, but it did have a mighty navy that could have started strangling the German economy immediately. France was ready, as were the Czechoslovaks and the USSR, although Poland was not going to let the Red Army cross their borders to assist.

Nazi Germany wasn’t ready either. Hitler played a blinding game of bluff. The Wermacht would have taken out the Czechoslovak army eventually, but at cost and it would have struggled to defend against a determined French thrust into the Rhineland. 1938 was a missed opportunity to crush Nazism.

What Munich did demonstrate to every observer was that the western allies had tried everything to avert war, so when it finally came almost everyone was resigned to the fact that the war had to be fought. I don’t think there was ever any doubt that Canada, Australia and New Zealand would rise to the occasion; doubts lingered over South Africa, but they still weighed in too. India, on the promise of independence, provided the numbers to eventually drive the Japanese from Burma. It was a true team effort and one that in a thousand generations people will still accept as just.

Cheers,

Colin

Well, Appeasement allowed GB to re-build and modernize an airforce and allowed time to develop radar.

As GB relied on importing food to feed its population, if GB had started to strangle Germany and its economy, Germany would have interpreted that as as an act of war, and would have responded by unrestricted submarine warfare. Recall that submarine warfare did threaten GB, and that food rationing continued after WW 2 had ended , until 1954.

Germany re-occupied the Rhineland on March 7, 1936. Maybe that was the time crush Nazism.....but not 1938.

Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 3:32:35 AM
The role played by Mussolini is being overlooked.

Incredible as it sounds in view of subsequent perception of events on the battlefield, in 1938 the Italian Alpine troops were considered first rate, and Italian concerns over German incursion into Austria mattered; keeping Mussolini onside mattered to Hitler, too.

Il Duce strutted the stage as broker of the Munich Agreement.

Editing: it was earlier, in 1934, that Mussolini had deterred Hitler from getting stuck into Austria : they came to an agreement afterwards, and then the outlook changed. But for the decade or so after WW1, the Italians were regarded as a formidable deterrent to German expansion in that region.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 6:41:53 AM
On March 19, 2003, the United States, along with coalition forces primarily from the United Kingdom, initiates war on Iraq. Just after explosions began to rock Baghdad, Iraq’s capital, U.S. President George W. Bush announced in a televised address, “At this hour, American and coalition forces are in the early stages of military operations to disarm Iraq, to free its people and to defend the world from grave danger.” President Bush and his advisors built much of their case for war on the specious claim that Iraq, under dictator Saddam Hussein, possessed or was in the process of building weapons of mass destruction.

Hostilities began about 90 minutes after the U.S.-imposed deadline for Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq or face war passed. The first targets, which Bush said were “of military importance,” were hit with Tomahawk cruise missiles from U.S. fighter-bombers and warships stationed in the Persian Gulf. In response to the attacks, Republic of Iraq radio in Baghdad announced, “the evil ones, the enemies of God, the homeland and humanity, have committed the stupidity of aggression against our homeland and people.”

Though Saddam Hussein had declared in early March 2003 that, “it is without doubt that the faithful will be victorious against aggression,” he went into hiding soon after the American invasion, speaking to his people only through an occasional audiotape. Coalition forces were able to topple his regime and capture Iraq’s major cities in just three weeks, sustaining few casualties. President Bush declared the end of major combat operations on May 1, 2003. Despite the defeat of conventional military forces in Iraq, an insurgency has continued an intense guerrilla war in the nation in the years since military victory was announced, resulting in thousands of coalition military, insurgent and civilian deaths.

After an intense manhunt, U.S. soldiers found Saddam Hussein hiding in a six-to-eight-foot deep hole, nine miles outside his hometown of Tikrit. He did not resist and was uninjured during the arrest. A soldier at the scene described him as “a man resigned to his fate.” Hussein was arrested and began trial for crimes against his people, including mass killings, in October 2005.

In June 2004, the provisional government in place since soon after Saddam’s ouster transferred power to the Iraqi Interim Government. In January 2005, the Iraqi people elected a 275-member Iraqi National Assembly. A new constitution for the country was ratified that October. On November 6, 2006, Saddam Hussein was found guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death by hanging. After an unsuccessful appeal, he was executed on December 30, 2006.

No weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq. The U.S. declared an end to the war in Iraq on December 15, 2011, nearly ten years after the fighting began.

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/war-in-iraq-begins?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0319-03192023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
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Not one weapon of mass destruction was ever found. We went to war on faulty intelligence. Iraq had absolutely nothing to do with the 9-11 attacks.

Another illegal war you can put next to Viet Nam.
NYGiant
home  USA
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This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 6:45:08 AM
On March 19, 1865, at the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, Confederate General Joseph Johnston makes a desperate attempt to stop Union General William T. Sherman’s drive through the Carolinas in the Civil War’s last days; however, Johnston’s motley force cannot stop the advance of Sherman’s mighty army.

Following his famous March to the Sea in late 1864, Sherman paused for a month at Savannah, Georgia. He then turned north into the Carolinas, destroying all that lay in his path in an effort to demoralize the South and hasten the end of the war. Sherman left Savannah with 60,000 men divided into two wings. He captured Columbia, South Carolina, in February and continued towards Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he planned to meet up with another army coming from the coast. Sherman intended to march to Petersburg, Virginia, where he would join General Ulysses S. Grant and crush the army of Robert E. Lee, the largest remaining Confederate force.

Sherman assumed that Rebel forces in the Carolinas were too widely dispersed to offer any significant resistance, but Johnston assembled 17,000 troops and attacked one of Sherman’s wings at Bentonville on March 19. The Confederates initially surprised the Yankees, driving them back before a Union counterattack halted the advance and darkness halted the fighting. The next day, Johnston established a strong defensive position and hoped for a Yankee assault. More Union troops arrived and gave Sherman a nearly three to one advantage over Johnston. When a Union force threatened to cut off the Rebel’s only line of retreat on March 21, Johnston withdrew his army northward.

The Union lost 194 men killed, 1,112 wounded, and 221 missing, while the Confederates lost some 240 killed, 1,700 wounded, and 1,500 missing. About Sherman, Johnston wrote to Lee that, “I can do no more than annoy him.” A month later, Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman.​

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/battle-of-bentonville-north-carolina?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0319-03192023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
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A nice battlefield to visit.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 7:52:41 AM
Some, 3-19, topics.? For example,

1687 French Canadian Explorer Robert de La Salle, is murdered by his own men while exploring the Mississippi! Why??. Anyone??

1863, CSA Cruiser Georgiana, is sunk on her maiden voyage with A cargo of over a $ million dollars in munitions & meds.! What happened to her?? Comments?

1865 the Rebs lose the battle of Bentonville NC. The end is near for the South?? Anyone?

1885 Louis Riel returns to Canada to set up a provisional government! I thought he was a criminal type? Does he have the right?? Anyone?

1920 US Senate rejects the League of Nations! Did this hurt the League?? Why?

1931 Nevada legalized gambling! Is it legal in Canada, Europe, or Oz?? Anyone?

1932 the Sydney Harbor Bridge is opened! Why were the Queries mad at the British?? Anyone?

1943 the Commonwealthers are in N. Africa! What factors led to them beating Rommel?? How did they manage to cut off most of the Desert Foxes supplies? Comments?

1945 800 killed on USS Franklin from Kamikaze planes! How many Commonwealthers lost their lives to IJN suicide planes?? Any figures?? Anyone?

1969 the Brits invade Anguilla, what ever for! Anyone??

1982 the Argentines invade the Falklands! Starting the Falkland Islands War! Anyone have a good video or website on it?? Who was in the right here? What are the Malvinas? Anyone??

Lots to discuss here!
Regards,
MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 7:58:22 AM
“We went to war on faulty intelligence.”

Yes, and the British PM, Tony Blair, backed the US President so avidly that you could see his bootlaces hanging out of Bush’s areshole.

To my shame, I was persuaded to believe in what Blair said.

The French, who voiced misgivings, were dismissed as “ cheese eating surrender monkeys.”

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6510
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 8:06:44 AM
Quote:
On March 19, 1865, at the Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, Confederate General Joseph Johnston makes a desperate attempt to stop Union General William T. Sherman’s drive through the Carolinas in the Civil War’s last days; however, Johnston’s motley force cannot stop the advance of Sherman’s mighty army.

Following his famous March to the Sea in late 1864, Sherman paused for a month at Savannah, Georgia. He then turned north into the Carolinas, destroying all that lay in his path in an effort to demoralize the South and hasten the end of the war. Sherman left Savannah with 60,000 men divided into two wings. He captured Columbia, South Carolina, in February and continued towards Goldsboro, North Carolina, where he planned to meet up with another army coming from the coast. Sherman intended to march to Petersburg, Virginia, where he would join General Ulysses S. Grant and crush the army of Robert E. Lee, the largest remaining Confederate force.

Sherman assumed that Rebel forces in the Carolinas were too widely dispersed to offer any significant resistance, but Johnston assembled 17,000 troops and attacked one of Sherman’s wings at Bentonville on March 19. The Confederates initially surprised the Yankees, driving them back before a Union counterattack halted the advance and darkness halted the fighting. The next day, Johnston established a strong defensive position and hoped for a Yankee assault. More Union troops arrived and gave Sherman a nearly three to one advantage over Johnston. When a Union force threatened to cut off the Rebel’s only line of retreat on March 21, Johnston withdrew his army northward.

The Union lost 194 men killed, 1,112 wounded, and 221 missing, while the Confederates lost some 240 killed, 1,700 wounded, and 1,500 missing. About Sherman, Johnston wrote to Lee that, “I can do no more than annoy him.” A month later, Johnston surrendered his army to Sherman.​

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/battle-of-bentonville-north-carolina?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0319-03192023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A nice battlefield to visit.


If memory serves me, Hardee, one of the most high ranking generals in the Confederacy, played a prominent role in this battle, in which his beloved son was killed. Please correct me if I’m wrong.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
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This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 8:08:33 AM
I learned the lesson from the Viet Nam War and the fuzzy Gulf of Tonkin Incident

stay safe man,
NYGiant
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 11:02:07 AM
Quote:
1687 French Canadian Explorer Robert de La Salle, is murdered by his own men while exploring the Mississippi! Why??. Anyone??


Actually, he is French, not French-Canadian. Born in Rouen, Normandy. Joined the Jesuits and took his vows and then asked to be released. It has been reported that he was mentally unstable and the Jesuits were happy to release him

The man seemed to have several benefactors in France willing to do him favours. La Salle was quite duplicitous to the point that he would happily mislead his king, Louis XIV, to secure those favours.

When he arrived in Canada he was granted land on the island of Montréal where he built an estate. The locals called the estate, "La Chine" because La Salle was obsessed with finding a route to the Pacific and China from Montréal. Anyway on his first voyage he and his crew made it to the north shore of Lake Erie and at that point he disappeared for a few years. He had told his crew that he was ill but there seems to be a gap in the man's history. As for the crew and the priests who were part of it, they felt that La Salle was incompetent and should not be leading a trip because he did not know what he was doing.

When he returned to New France he claimed to have travelled westward and discovered the source of the Mississippi even before Marquette and Joliet who are usually given credit for that feat.

He returned to France and made great claims for the things that he had discovered and the King granted him the right to explore to the south and to build forts along the way. And this he did.

He also got to the Mississippi at about the place where Memphis is today and he travelled to the mouth of the Mississippi where he claimed the country of "Louisiana" for the French crown.

Returning to France he convinced the King that he should be the man to establish the French presence from Florida to Mexico. La Salle was scheming with some men in France to establish a colony and fort at the mouth of the Rio Grande so he told the King that the mouth of the Mississippi was right next to the Rio Grande River. In truth he convinced the king that the Mississippi was about 600 miles closer to the Rio Grande than it really is. Despite thinking that the Louisiana claim was useless, the King authorized La Salle to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi.

Off La Salle went with over 200 souls to set up a colony. One ship turned back and I think they lost one to a pirate. Many of the people were quite ill.

It seems that La Salle actually missed the mouth of the Mississippi when he landed. He actually landed in a bay whose name escapes me but is now part of Texas. He left some people to begin setting up a colony and was wandering westward. There are claims that he got to the Rio Grande but I am not sure of that.

His men became unruly, feeling that La Salle was lost and confused. La Salle ordered them to head north to a fort on the Illinois as their supplies were gone. Violence broke out and one of the men shot and killed La Salle.

A few of the men continued to fight with one another and more were killed. Six managed to make it back to Canada. A few sought refuge with the First Nations people.

So how shall we view La Salle? He did further French fur trade interests by treating with First Nations people. He did establish a series of forts and he did claim land for France in Louisiana.

But he was an unpleasant sort and a weak and duplicitous leader who made some claims to glory that were unsubstantiated.

Cheers,

George
DT509er
Santa Rosa CA USA
Posts: 1527
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 12:18:04 PM
Quote:
1945 800 killed on USS Franklin from Kamikaze planes! How many Commonwealthers lost their lives to IJN suicide planes?? Any figures?? Anyone?

Regards,
MD



"[...] Before dawn on 19 March 1945, Franklin, Captain Leslie E. Gehres, commanding, launched a fighter sweep against Honshu and later a strike against shipping in Kobe Harbor. Suddenly, a single enemy plane(my emphasis) pierced the cloud cover and made a low level run on the gallant ship to drop two semi-armor piercing bombs. One struck the flight deck centerline, penetrating to the hangar deck, effecting destruction and igniting fires through the second and third decks, and knocking out the combat information center and air plot. The second hit aft, tearing through two decks and fanning fires that triggered ammunition, bombs, and rockets. Franklin, within 50 miles of the Japanese mainland, lay dead in the water, took a 13° starboard list, lost all radio communications, and broiled under the heat from enveloping fires."

Pictures of that day can be found here: [Read More]

Two officers would be awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions on the Franklin as well as having two ships named after them.

Dan

----------------------------------
"American parachutists-devils in baggy pants..." German officer, Italy 1944. “If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment.” Lord Ernest Rutherford
DT509er
Santa Rosa CA USA
Posts: 1527
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 12:32:15 PM
Quote:
1982 the Argentines invade the Falklands! Starting the Falkland Islands War! Anyone have a good video or website on it?? Who was in the right here? What are the Malvinas? Anyone??

Lots to discuss here!
Regards,
MD



Falklands video: [Read More]

Dan
----------------------------------
"American parachutists-devils in baggy pants..." German officer, Italy 1944. “If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment.” Lord Ernest Rutherford
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1973
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 1:40:05 PM
Last time an American cruiser was sunk in combat.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 7:38:24 PM
Quote:
1945 800 killed on USS Franklin from Kamikaze planes! How many Commonwealthers lost their lives to IJN suicide planes?? Any figures?? Anyone?


From US Naval Institute

Quote:
During Operation Iceberg, the BPF had spent 62 days at sea, with a break of 8 days anchored in Leyte Gulf. Aircraft from five of its fleet carriers flew 5,335 sorties and expended 1,000 tons of bombs and 500,000 rounds of ammunition. The fleet destroyed 42 enemy aircraft in the air and more than 100 on the ground and prevented the Japanese from staging aircraft to Okinawa. In exchange, TF 57 lost 44 officers and men killed on board ships and 41 aircrew. All four operational carriers needed dockyard repairs on their return to Sydney to make good defects and damage inflicted by the enemy.


Many ships in the British Pacific Force were hit by kamikaze including all four aircraft carriers. The steel decks made those carriers less vulnerable to kamikaze attack than the USN carriers.

[Read More]


Cheers,

George
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13550
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
3/19/2023 8:21:43 PM
Quote:
1885 Louis Riel returns to Canada to set up a provisional government! I thought he was a criminal type? Does he have the right?? Anyone?


Certainly the Canadian government thought of him as a criminal. They did hang him after all.

Today he is viewed as Manitoba's Father of Confederation.

Canada became a Dominion in 1867 and immediately set out to expand westward. There was an uprising in 1869 in the Red River Colony which would be in the province of Manitoba today. They were upset by changes that would come about with the sale of the Hudson Bay Company lands called Rupert's Land, to Canada. The Red River colony happened to be in a small section of the former Rupert's Land. The Canadian government had been in a hurry to occupy Rupert's Land and in their haste had neglected to inform the inhabitants of their plans.

Many of the people living near the colony were Métis who sensed that their lands and culture were threatened by the Canadian takeover. They were also in conflict with Protestant people who had arrived from the east and were overly aggressive in the eyes of the Métis.

In 1969 surveyors from the government of Canada had arrived to survey the Red River Colony with no regard for the people who already occupied lands. In the French style that we can see in Québec, the Métis had established long and thin farms that ran down to the river. The new surveys created square plots of land and some would have no river access.

Louis Riel stepped up to lead the Métis and he stopped the entry of surveyors to the area. They seized HBC Fort Garry hoping that that would compel the Canadian government to negotiate.

The Métis declared their own provisional government led by Riel and sought to negotiate entry into Canadian Confederation. Violence broke out between the Métis and the Protestant colonists. Riel's men captured some of the people who opposed them. Unfortunately, Riel decided to execute one of them who had been taken prisoner. Canada eventually agreed to admit a new province called Manitoba into Confederation in 1870 but refused to grant amnesty to Riel.

Riel and other leaders fled to the US.

The Métis were still unhappy and moved west to find freedom and buffalo. And in 1885 they reorganized their resistance which became known as the North-west Rebellion. Louis Riel returned from exile to take a leadership role. The Canadian government dispatched troops and several violent clashes took place with deaths on both sides. The Canadian government did finally give land grants to the Métis but true to their word they would not grant amnesty to Louis Riel who was captured.

French Canada including Québec was outraged at the arrest of Louis Riel and further outraged when he was found guilty of treason in 1885.

It is remarkable how Louis Riel's image has improved in all of Canada since his hanging. Once viewed as a treasonous rebel in Anglo Canada, he is now viewed as a man who only wished to advocate for his people. It is also true that the Canadian government basically ignored the plight of the Métis and the petitions that Riel had sent to the government asking for negotiations to begin and describing just what their concerns were.

Louis Riel







DT509er
Santa Rosa CA USA
Posts: 1527
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
3/20/2023 12:52:57 AM
Keel laid in 1935, launched & commissioned in 1938, decommissioned in 1946, CL-46 USS Phoenix was a fine ship with nine (9) battle stars during WWII under her belt. Her sinking during the Falklands as the ARA General Belgrano while sad to see demonstrated yet again, war is hell.

[Read More]

Dan
----------------------------------
"American parachutists-devils in baggy pants..." German officer, Italy 1944. “If your experiment needs statistics, you ought to have done a better experiment.” Lord Ernest Rutherford
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
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This day in World History! Continued
3/20/2023 6:55:36 AM
On this date in American History....

On March 20, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson notifies Alabama’s Governor George Wallace that he will use federal authority to call up the Alabama National Guard in order to supervise a planned civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery.

Intimidation and discrimination had earlier prevented Selma’s Black population—over half the city—from registering and voting. On Sunday, March 7, 1965, a group of 600 demonstrators marched on the capital city of Montgomery to protest this disenfranchisement and the earlier killing of a Black man, Jimmie Lee Jackson, by a state trooper.

In brutal scenes that were later broadcast on television, state and local police attacked the marchers with billy clubs and tear gas. TV viewers far and wide were outraged by the images, and a protest march was organized just two days after “Bloody Sunday” by Martin Luther King Jr., head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). King turned the marchers around, however, rather than carry out the march without federal judicial approval.

​After an Alabama federal judge ruled on March 18 that a third march could go ahead, President Johnson and his advisers worked quickly to find a way to ensure the safety of King and his demonstrators on their way from Selma to Montgomery. The most powerful obstacle in their way was Governor Wallace, an outspoken segregationist who was reluctant to spend any state funds on protecting the demonstrators. Hours after promising Johnson—in telephone calls recorded by the White House—that he would call out the Alabama National Guard to maintain order, Wallace went on television and demanded that Johnson send in federal troops instead.

Furious, Johnson told Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach to write a press release stating that because Wallace refused to use the 10,000 available guardsmen to preserve order in his state, Johnson himself was calling the guard up and giving them all necessary support. Several days later, 50,000 marchers followed King some 54 miles, under the watchful eyes of state and federal troops.

Arriving safely in Montgomery on March 25, they watched King deliver his famous “How Long, Not Long” speech from the steps of the Capitol building. The clash between Johnson and Wallace—and Johnson’s decisive action—was an important turning point in the civil rights movement. Within five months, Congress had passed the Voting Rights Act, which Johnson proudly signed into law on August 6, 1965.


saymedia.com
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/lbj-sends-federal-troops-to-alabama?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0320-03202023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2

​================================================= ================================================== ==================================

It was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 which tried the Olde Confederacy to vote Republican.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8313
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/20/2023 7:27:46 AM
Quote:
Quote:
1982 the Argentines invade the Falklands! Starting the Falkland Islands War! Anyone have a good video or website on it?? Who was in the right here? What are the Malvinas? Anyone??

Lots to discuss here!
Regards,
MD



Falklands video: [Read More]

Dan




Thanks Dan,

Great video for a synopsis of the Falklands War.

MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
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