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Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6498
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
3/31/2023 4:46:33 PM
It almost embarrasses me to admit this, but I felt proud of him. She wasn’t bad, either.

I won’t mind licking his stamps after all.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/31/2023 5:48:44 PM
Hey guys,

Checking 3-31, in history, moved to the new page, more events for discussion!???

845 Paris is seiged by the Vikings! Just how far into the middle of Europe did they advance?? Comments??

1794 the republic of Switzerland is formed! How did this little land locked country gain independence!? & why are they always neutral?? What say you about the Swiss???

1804 thousands of white people massacred in Haiti! How & why?? Did this have any effect on the US South!???

1847 the US captures Vera Cruz, Mexico! What famous US Civil War generals were involved?? Anyone??

1848 Niagara Falls stops! Yeah sure!? How & any news on it?? Comment

1867 the Canadian Constitution is formed, Anyone enlighten us on how it differs from the US's!??? Comments or websites?

1865 the Appomattox Campaign starts over 7,500 men will die til April 9th, mostly Rebs.?? Anyone have the breakdown on casualties??

1912 Robert Falcon Scott makes his last entry in a tent in the Arctic, what mistakes did he make to lead to this tragedy!? What say you??

1936 Nazi propaganda says 99% of the Germans are pro Nazi! What's the real figure?? We really don't know?? Any figures on this? Anyone??

1942 the RN Cruiser Trinadad torpedoes itself!! How in the he'll could this happen!? Anyone know??

1976 the US National Guard 8 of them indicted for killing 4 Kent State students! Who ordered this? Who was to blame? What ultimately happened to them?? Comments?

Lots to discuss here,
Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
3/31/2023 5:53:16 PM
Quote:
Quote:



1865 the Appomattox Campaign starts over 7,500 men will die til April 9th, mostly Rebs.?? Anyone have the breakdown on casualties??



From Livermore :

Appomattox Campaign, March 29 -April 9 1865

Yankees, 9,066 killed and wounded, 1,714 missing.

Rebs, 6,266 killed and wounded, 13,769 captured March 29 to April 7, 26,765 surrendered on April 9.

The yankees suffered the greater bloodshed, because they made the big frontal attack against the rebel earthworks that started the final fighting. Nowhere near 7,500 men " died". Most of the casualties were wounded, outnumbering the killed by four or five to one. I reckon that three yankees died for every two rebs over the campaign. The loss suffered by the rebs in prisoners, surrendered and deserters was devastating.

Regards, Phil



Thanks Phil,

I didn't realize that the Union had that much more casualties than the Rebs!?

But then they could replace them! The critical problem for Lee & the ANV was basically no food or supplies!?

What say you?
Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1968
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/31/2023 6:27:08 PM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City_draft_riots
scoucer
Berlin  Germany
Posts: 3269
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
3/31/2023 7:54:42 PM
Quote:
It almost embarrasses me to admit this, but I felt proud of him. She wasn’t bad, either.

I won’t mind licking his stamps after all.

Regards, Phil


Well Phil, he has had enough time to practice. And German pens work.

Trevor
----------------------------------
`Hey don´t the wars come easy and don´t the peace come hard`- Buffy Sainte-Marie Some swim with the stream. Some swim against the stream. Me - I´m stuck somewhere in the woods and can´t even find the stupid stream.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6498
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 1:17:00 AM
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:



1865 the Appomattox Campaign starts over 7,500 men will die til April 9th, mostly Rebs.?? Anyone have the breakdown on casualties??



From Livermore :

Appomattox Campaign, March 29 -April 9 1865

Yankees, 9,066 killed and wounded, 1,714 missing.

Rebs, 6,266 killed and wounded, 13,769 captured March 29 to April 7, 26,765 surrendered on April 9.

The yankees suffered the greater bloodshed, because they made the big frontal attack against the rebel earthworks that started the final fighting. Nowhere near 7,500 men " died". Most of the casualties were wounded, outnumbering the killed by four or five to one. I reckon that three yankees died for every two rebs over the campaign. The loss suffered by the rebs in prisoners, surrendered and deserters was devastating.

Regards, Phil



Thanks Phil,

I didn't realize that the Union had that much more casualties than the Rebs!?

But then they could replace them! The critical problem for Lee & the ANV was basically no food or supplies!?

What say you?
Regards,
MD


Dave,

Look no further than the desperate fight for Fort Gregg, one of the important confederate bastions in the defences outside Petersburg that the yankees stormed on 2 April 1865.

This has rightly been described as “ The Alamo of the Confederacy “, and since tomorrow marks the anniversary it’ll be a good topic to refer to on this sector of the forum.

The very heavy loss in prisoners made the rebel casualty list in this campaign unbearable : a man who surrenders or who is captured is a casualty, even if he’s unscathed.

Regards, Phil
----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 7:35:06 AM
On this date in US History....

On April 1, 1945, after suffering the loss of 116 planes and damage to three aircraft carriers, 50,000 U.S. combat troops, under the command of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr., land on the southwest coast of the Japanese island of Okinawa, 350 miles south of Kyushu, the southern main island of Japan.

Determined to seize Okinawa as a base of operations for the army ground and air forces for a later assault on mainland Japan, more than 1,300 ships converged on the island, finally putting ashore 50,000 combat troops on April 1. The Americans quickly seized two airfields and advanced inland to cut the island’s waist. They battled nearly 120,000 Japanese army, militia and labor troops under the command of Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima.



The Japanese surprised the American forces with a change in strategy, drawing them into the mainland rather than confronting them at the water’s edge. While Americans landed without loss of men, they would suffer more than 50,000 casualties, including more than 12,000 deaths, as the Japanese staged a desperate defense of the island, a defense that included waves of kamikaze (“divine wind”) air attacks. Eventually, these suicide raids proved counterproductive, as the Japanese finally ran out of planes and resolve, with some 4,000 finally surrendering. Japanese casualties numbered some 117,000.



Lieutenant General Buckner, son of a Civil War general, was among the casualties, killed by enemy artillery fire just three days before the Japanese surrender. Japanese General Ushijima committed ritual suicide upon defeat of his forces.

The 1952 film Okinawa starring Pat O’Brien, is one of several movies to depict this decisive episode in the history of the war.


https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-troops-land-on-okinawa?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0401-04012023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c 3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2

George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:14:59 AM
April 1, 1873

The British White Star Line ship S.S. Atlantic sank after ramming into the coast of Nova Scotia. 547 people died though the final total has been debated.

Every woman on board died and all but one child.

It is estimated that the ship carried about 975 people including passengers, crew and stowaways.

This was the largest marine disaster for White Star until the Titanic went down. The ship was one of the most modern and was on its 19th voyage between Liverpool and New York. On Mar. 31 the captain decided that he was low on coal and made for Nova Scotia to ensure that the ship would make it to NYC.

Captain James Williams had never been to Halifax before and unfamiliar with the tide patterns caused by the Bay of Fundy. He was thrown off course by the currents associated with the tides and was 20 km to the west of Halifax.

At 3:15 AM with the captain sleeping, SS Atlantic crashed into an island next to the town of Lower Prospect, Nova Scotia. Those that lived owe their lives to the people of Lower Prospect who awakened at the sound of the crash and the cries for help. Fishermen launched boats and began to pick up survivors hanging on to pieces of wreckage. Some survivors managed to swim to shore and were taken inside by the citizens of Lower Prospect.

Bodies recovered were buried in two cemeteries not far from Lower Prospect.

Video on the sinking of S.S. Atlantic


[Read More]

The wooden parts of the ship have all been destroyed by decades of the action of the Atlantic but the boilers and other metal parts of the ship comprise a popular dive site today.

Cheers,

George
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:35:55 AM
Quote:
On this date in US History....

On April 1, 1945, after suffering the loss of 116 planes and damage to three aircraft carriers, 50,000 U.S. combat troops, under the command of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr., land on the southwest coast of the Japanese island of Okinawa, 350 miles south of Kyushu, the southern main island of Japan.

Determined to seize Okinawa as a base of operations for the army ground and air forces for a later assault on mainland Japan, more than 1,300 ships converged on the island, finally putting ashore 50,000 combat troops on April 1. The Americans quickly seized two airfields and advanced inland to cut the island’s waist. They battled nearly 120,000 Japanese army, militia and labor troops under the command of Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima.



The Japanese surprised the American forces with a change in strategy, drawing them into the mainland rather than confronting them at the water’s edge. While Americans landed without loss of men, they would suffer more than 50,000 casualties, including more than 12,000 deaths, as the Japanese staged a desperate defense of the island, a defense that included waves of kamikaze (“divine wind”) air attacks. Eventually, these suicide raids proved counterproductive, as the Japanese finally ran out of planes and resolve, with some 4,000 finally surrendering. Japanese casualties numbered some 117,000.


https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/u-s-troops-land-on-okinawa?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0401-04012023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c 3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2


Guys,

It was the costly battle for Okinawa that led to the Allied decision to use the Atomic Bomb on Japan!

What say you?
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:43:36 AM
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:



1865 the Appomattox Campaign starts over 7,500 men will die til April 9th, mostly Rebs.?? Anyone have the breakdown on casualties??



From Livermore :

Appomattox Campaign, March 29 -April 9 1865

Yankees, 9,066 killed and wounded, 1,714 missing.

Rebs, 6,266 killed and wounded, 13,769 captured March 29 to April 7, 26,765 surrendered on April 9.

The yankees suffered the greater bloodshed, because they made the big frontal attack against the rebel earthworks that started the final fighting. Nowhere near 7,500 men " died". Most of the casualties were wounded, outnumbering the killed by four or five to one. I reckon that three yankees died for every two rebs over the campaign. The loss suffered by the rebs in prisoners, surrendered and deserters was devastating.

Regards, Phil



Thanks Phil,

I didn't realize that the Union had that much more casualties than the Rebs!?

But then they could replace them! The critical problem for Lee & the ANV was basically no food or supplies!?

What say you?
Regards,
MD


Dave,

Look no further than the desperate fight for Fort Gregg, one of the important confederate bastions in the defences outside Petersburg that the yankees stormed on 2 April 1865.

This has rightly been described as “ The Alamo of the Confederacy “, and since tomorrow marks the anniversary it’ll be a good topic to refer to on this sector of the forum.

The very heavy loss in prisoners made the rebel casualty list in this campaign unbearable : a man who surrenders or who is captured is a casualty, even if he’s unscathed.

Regards, Phil



Hi Phil,

Out numbered at least 10 to 1, the @ 400 Reb. Troops held out for 2 hours allowing Lee to gather his defensive position! Of course the ANV will surrender a week later at Appomattox Court House. But still a valiant stand! The American Battlefield Trust has a very good video on it , perhaps you could post it or post another website??

Thanks, Phil, you have become a good source,
on all things Civil War! ☺
Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:49:10 AM
Quote:
April 1, 1873

The British White Star Line ship S.S. Atlantic sank after ramming into the coast of Nova Scotia. 547 people died though the final total has been debated.

Every woman on board died and all but one child.

It is estimated that the ship carried about 975 people including passengers, crew and stowaways.

This was the largest marine disaster for White Star until the Titanic went down. The ship was one of the most modern and was on its 19th voyage between Liverpool and New York. On Mar. 31 the captain decided that he was low on coal and made for Nova Scotia to ensure that the ship would make it to NYC.

Captain James Williams had never been to Halifax before and unfamiliar with the tide patterns caused by the Bay of Fundy. He was thrown off course by the currents associated with the tides and was 20 km to the west of Halifax.

At 3:15 AM with the captain sleeping, SS Atlantic crashed into an island next to the town of Lower Prospect, Nova Scotia. Those that lived owe their lives to the people of Lower Prospect who awakened at the sound of the crash and the cries for help. Fishermen launched boats and began to pick up survivors hanging on to pieces of wreckage. Some survivors managed to swim to shore and were taken inside by the citizens of Lower Prospect.

Bodies recovered were buried in two cemeteries not far from Lower Prospect.

Video on the sinking of S.S. Atlantic


[Read More]

The wooden parts of the ship have all been destroyed by decades of the action of the Atlantic but the boilers and other metal parts of the ship comprise a popular dive site today.

Cheers,

George



Hi George,

Great post, & website! Interesting that because of the Captain needing to refuel, (coal) in the middle of the night on a extremely dangerous coastline,, that he had never been to! Also his ship was a 4 master schooner, why he could have sailed to New Yorkk, if he ran out of coal? Instead a terrible tragedy where he lost most of the souls onboard, within a few yards of shore!?

Sad! What say you??
Regards,
MD


BTW, April Fools! Any MHO'ERS have anything on the history of April Fools Day??? ☺
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
scoucer
Berlin  Germany
Posts: 3269
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 12:09:34 PM
Quote:
His speech was well received by the Germans.


Well, he is a woke lefty tree hugger like us.

Trevor
----------------------------------
`Hey don´t the wars come easy and don´t the peace come hard`- Buffy Sainte-Marie Some swim with the stream. Some swim against the stream. Me - I´m stuck somewhere in the woods and can´t even find the stupid stream.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:50:23 PM
Yeah Trevor,

It's time I "Woke" up, while I have something "left", I have to " cancil culture" of these blood cells I'm studying, & as a runner, I have a " critical race" to.win in theory, anyway!? Geeze, what next???

Gotta go! ☺
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 9:57:20 PM
Back to serious history! Like these for tomorrow!!??

4-2 in history, the following,

BTW Last year at this time, Canada made the World Cup field for the 1st time in 36 years! The Ukraine might also be in the field? No Russians however!? What say you about last years World Cup!? Congrats to the Canadian Men's team!?

1792 the US passes their coinage act, all coins were gold or silver, including a $10.00 golden eagle! Can you imagine how much 1 is worth today? BTW did Canada & other countries use gold & silver coins ??

1801 Lord Horatio Nelson leads the RN to a victory at Copenhagen! What made Nelson such a great naval commander?? What was his attack plan that was so successful? Anyone?

1863 during the Civil War the Bread revolt in Richmond, VA! Why did this happen? Poor Davis leadership? Or was it the Union Blockade?? What say you??

1865 Union wins the battle of Petersburg, finally! & Davis flees Richmond, the Confederacy only has days to live!? Comments on their last days??

1912 RMS Titanic under goes sea trials, it has no idea it's fate in 2 weeks time? Comments on the ship they said was unsinkable!??

1917 Pres. Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany! What took him so long?? Anyone?

1921 Albert Einstein comes up with his theory of Relatively, E=MC2, what does it mean?? Also the guy could use a barber?? What say you??

1926 riots between Muslims & Hindus in India! What caused this? Politics or religion?? Comments?

1932 Charles Lindbergh turns over $50K ransome for his son! Any comments on this tragedy!?

1935 Scottish Physicist Robert Watson Watt turns his Radar findings over to the British! How may this actually save the RN & Britain!?? What say you??

1942 Jimmy Doolittle sets out with B-25s how will his mission effect WWII in the Pacific!? Comments on the air attack!?? Anyone?

1982 Argentina takes the Falkland Islands! How long will it take the UK to respond!?? Were the entire Commonwealthers involved?? What say you?? Any good sites on the Falklands War??

2019 Canada is warming up faster then any other country according to a federal report! Why is the global warming especially effecting the Great used to be North!? Not funny, very serious! Also what about all the radical volatile weather we're getting? Just a coincidence?? What say you??

More good new topics above!
Comments?
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Brian Grafton
Victoria BC Canada
Posts: 4806
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
4/1/2023 11:07:02 PM
Quote:
1792 the US passes their coinage act, all coins were gold or silver, including a $10.00 golden eagle! Can you imagine how much 1 is worth today? BTW did Canada & other countries use gold & silver coins ??

MD, thanks for the tip-off. I know little about currency, and less about US currency. I’ve not even studied CDN money and coinage, though I have about “shin plasters” and various other oddities. But I will make a wild stab here and say I would expect all currencies to have value originally based on something specific, measurable and relatively fixed.

I have been more intrigued by the pre-decimalized British pound (£) than any other currency, perhaps because of what appear to be its eccentricities. Here’s a short piece worth considering, taken from Britannica’s website. I’ll give the link below, but this is the complete text of the link:
“pound sterling, the basic monetary unit of Great Britain, divided (since 1971) decimally into 100 new pence. The term is derived from the fact that, about 775, silver coins known as “sterlings” were issued in the Saxon kingdoms, 240 of them being minted from a pound of silver, the weight of which was probably about equal to the later troy pound. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in “pounds of sterlings,” a phrase later shortened to “pounds sterling.” After the Norman Conquest the pound was divided for accounting purposes into 20 shillings and into 240 pennies, or pence. In medieval Latin documents the words libra, solidus, and denarius were used to denote the pound, shilling, and penny, which gave rise to the use of the symbols £, s., and d.

On February 15, 1971, the pound sterling was officially decimalized into 100 new pence. The symbol £ was retained for the pound sterling, and the letter p was chosen for the new penny.”

[Read More]

My late partner Annette, British by birth, remembered collecting gifted pence from aunts and uncles, or for helping with chores. She would toss them into a bag until they weighed (guess what) one pound, and would trade them in at a local banking establishment (probably not a bank, knowing her father’s beliefs) for a (paper) quid.

I can also remember buying goods priced in guineas. I believe the term still has a value, and is still used for some kinds of transactions. At the time, IIRC, the guinea was valued at 1£ 1s. My first purchase was a rare book for 11 gns; when I received it, the price noted on the fly-leaf was “11/11”. Interchangeable values! I honestly don’t know if for British merchants dealing with foreign customers, the guinea was both a guarantee of honour and a proof of value.

Cheers
Brian G

PS: To this day, I carry a British half penny from 1941 (George VI) in my pocket.





----------------------------------
"We have met the enemy, and he is us." Walt Kelly. "The Best Things in Life Aren't Things" Bumper sticker.
Phil Andrade
London  UK
Posts: 6498
Joined: 2004
This day in World History! Continued
4/2/2023 5:24:03 AM
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:
Quote:



1865 the Appomattox Campaign starts over 7,500 men will die til April 9th, mostly Rebs.?? Anyone have the breakdown on casualties??



From Livermore :

Appomattox Campaign, March 29 -April 9 1865

Yankees, 9,066 killed and wounded, 1,714 missing.

Rebs, 6,266 killed and wounded, 13,769 captured March 29 to April 7, 26,765 surrendered on April 9.

The yankees suffered the greater bloodshed, because they made the big frontal attack against the rebel earthworks that started the final fighting. Nowhere near 7,500 men " died". Most of the casualties were wounded, outnumbering the killed by four or five to one. I reckon that three yankees died for every two rebs over the campaign. The loss suffered by the rebs in prisoners, surrendered and deserters was devastating.

Regards, Phil



Thanks Phil,

I didn't realize that the Union had that much more casualties than the Rebs!?

But then they could replace them! The critical problem for Lee & the ANV was basically no food or supplies!?

What say you?
Regards,
MD


Dave,

Look no further than the desperate fight for Fort Gregg, one of the important confederate bastions in the defences outside Petersburg that the yankees stormed on 2 April 1865.

This has rightly been described as “ The Alamo of the Confederacy “, and since tomorrow marks the anniversary it’ll be a good topic to refer to on this sector of the forum.

The very heavy loss in prisoners made the rebel casualty list in this campaign unbearable : a man who surrenders or who is captured is a casualty, even if he’s unscathed.

Regards, Phil



Hi Phil,

Out numbered at least 10 to 1, the @ 400 Reb. Troops held out for 2 hours allowing Lee to gather his defensive position! Of course the ANV will surrender a week later at Appomattox Court House. But still a valiant stand! The American Battlefield Trust has a very good video on it , perhaps you could post it or post another website??

Thanks, Phil, you have become a good source,
on all things Civil War! ☺
Regards,
MD


Here we are, then Dave, let me suggest this link :

Confederate Alamo : Bloodbath at Petersburg's Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865

virginiahistory.org/learn/...-fort-gregg-april-2-1865

or try

soundcloud.co./virginiahistory/fox-4115

I haven't yet listened to it , so forgive me if it's a dud, but I feel it looks promising.

It was one of the nastiest episodes of close combat that the war furnished. Of the 214 Confederates in Fort Gregg, only 30 were still standing ; 55 had been killed and 129 wounded. The yankees who attacked them suffered 714 casualties. The Fall of Petersburg was to cost 3,361 Union casualties along the entire line that day.

It's another example of a terrible war being fought out to the " last desperate inch" , to use the phrase that Churchill coined in his depiction of the American Civil War. It also exemplifies that tragic loss of life that occurs in the culminating moments of some wars, when one cannot help but wonder why so many men perish when the end was so close. It was to happen again in November 1918, and again in April and early May 1945.

This stand at Fort Gregg deserves the title of the Confederate Alamo. It's got that Thermopylae feel to it.

Tell Sparta !

Regards, Phil


----------------------------------
"Egad, sir, I do not know whether you will die on the gallows or of the pox!" "That will depend, my Lord, on whether I embrace your principles or your mistress." Earl of Sandwich and John Wilkes
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
4/2/2023 6:43:13 AM

Continuing with the theme of Women in America History....


Jeannette Pickering Rankin, the first woman ever elected to Congress, takes her seat in the U.S. Capitol as a representative from Montana.

Born on a ranch near Missoula, Montana Territory, in 1880, Rankin was a social worker in the states of Montana and Washington before joining the women’s suffrage movement in 1910. Working with various suffrage groups, she campaigned for the women’s vote on a national level and in 1914 was instrumental in the passage of suffrage legislation in Montana. Two years later, she successfully ran for Congress in Montana on a progressive Republican platform calling for total women’s suffrage, legislation protecting children, and U.S. neutrality in the European war. Following her election as a representative, Rankin’s entrance into Congress was delayed for a month as congressmen discussed whether a woman should be admitted into the House of Representatives.

Finally, on April 2, 1917, she was introduced in Congress as its first female member. The same day, President Woodrow Wilson addressed a joint session of Congress and urged a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted for war by a wide majority, and on April 6 the vote went to the House. Citing public opinion in Montana and her own pacifist beliefs, Jeannette Rankin was one of only 50 representatives who voted against the American declaration of war. For the remainder of her first term in Congress, she sponsored legislation to aid women and children, and advocated the passage of a federal suffrage amendment.

In 1918, Rankin unsuccessfully ran for a Senate seat, and in 1919 she left Congress to become an important figure in a number of suffrage and pacifist organizations. In 1940, with the U.S. entrance into another world war imminent, she was again elected as a pacifist representative from Montana and, after assuming office, argued vehemently against President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s war preparations. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the next day, at Roosevelt’s urging, Congress passed a formal declaration of war against Japan. Representative Rankin cast the sole dissenting vote. This action created a furor and Rankin declined to seek reelection. After leaving office in 1943, Rankin continued to be an important spokesperson for pacifism and social reform. In 1967, she organized the Jeannette Rankin Brigade, an organization that staged a number of highly publicized protests against the Vietnam War. She died in 1973 at the age of 93.​


saymedia.com
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jeannette-rankin-assumes-office?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0402-04022023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2


================================================== ================================================== =======================

She was a trail-blazer, a true American Hero.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/2/2023 7:33:56 AM
With regard to Fort Gregg,

Here we are, then Dave, let me suggest this link :

Confederate Alamo : Bloodbath at Petersburg's Fort Gregg on April 2, 1865

[Read More]

or try

[Read More]

I haven't yet listened to it , so forgive me if it's a dud, but I feel it looks promising.

It was one of the nastiest episodes of close combat that the war furnished. Of the 214 Confederates in Fort Gregg, only 30 were still standing ; 55 had been killed and 129 wounded. The yankees who attacked them suffered 714 casualties. The Fall of Petersburg was to cost 3,361 Union casualties along the entire line that day.

It's another example of a terrible war being fought out to the " last desperate inch" , to use the phrase that Churchill coined in his depiction of the American Civil War. It also exemplifies that tragic loss of life that occurs in the culminating moments of some wars, when one cannot help but wonder why so many men perish when the end was so close. It was to happen again in November 1918, and again in April and early May 1945.

This stand at Fort Gregg deserves the title of the Confederate Alamo. It's got that Thermopylae feel to it.

Tell Sparta !

Regards, Phil


Thanks Phil,

I read that in the heat of the battle a lone Confederate Cannoneer was ready to fire his piece, was surrounded by Yankees & ask to surrender, he fired away & was shot by multiple guns, dying instantly!

BTW tried to put your sites into easier "read mores"! But I'm having trouble with it?? Or is there an easier access one?? Can any one help?

Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/2/2023 8:47:32 AM
Quote:
Quote:
1792 the US passes their coinage act, all coins were gold or silver, including a $10.00 golden eagle! Can you imagine how much 1 is worth today? BTW did Canada & other countries use gold & silver coins ??

MD, thanks for the tip-off. I know little about currency, and less about US currency. I’ve not even studied CDN money and coinage, though I have about “shin plasters” and various other oddities. But I will make a wild stab here and say I would expect all currencies to have value originally based on something specific, measurable and relatively fixed.

I have been more intrigued by the pre-decimalized British pound (£) than any other currency, perhaps because of what appear to be its eccentricities. Here’s a short piece worth considering, taken from Britannica’s website. I’ll give the link below, but this is the complete text of the link:
“pound sterling, the basic monetary unit of Great Britain, divided (since 1971) decimally into 100 new pence. The term is derived from the fact that, about 775, silver coins known as “sterlings” were issued in the Saxon kingdoms, 240 of them being minted from a pound of silver, the weight of which was probably about equal to the later troy pound. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in “pounds of sterlings,” a phrase later shortened to “pounds sterling.” After the Norman Conquest the pound was divided for accounting purposes into 20 shillings and into 240 pennies, or pence. In medieval Latin documents the words libra, solidus, and denarius were used to denote the pound, shilling, and penny, which gave rise to the use of the symbols £, s., and d.

On February 15, 1971, the pound sterling was officially decimalized into 100 new pence. The symbol £ was retained for the pound sterling, and the letter p was chosen for the new penny.”

[Read More]

My late partner Annette, British by birth, remembered collecting gifted pence from aunts and uncles, or for helping with chores. She would toss them into a bag until they weighed (guess what) one pound, and would trade them in at a local banking establishment (probably not a bank, knowing her father’s beliefs) for a (paper) quid.

I can also remember buying goods priced in guineas. I believe the term still has a value, and is still used for some kinds of transactions. At the time, IIRC, the guinea was valued at 1£ 1s. My first purchase was a rare book for 11 gns; when I received it, the price noted on the fly-leaf was “11/11”. Interchangeable values! I honestly don’t know if for British merchants dealing with foreign customers, the guinea was both a guarantee of honour and a proof of value.

Cheers
Brian G

PS: To this day, I carry a British half penny from 1941 (George VI) in my pocket.










Hi Brian,

I used to have a coin collection, gave it to.my daughter Megan, It had a Colonial Half penny going back to the mid 1700's! Not sure how much it was worth??

Thanks for the post!
Cheers,
MD

BTW the British Coinage you talk about goes back to Charles Dickens, I remember them mentioned in his famous, "A Christmas Carol," !?

Hey MHO'ers, Do you have any rare or valuable coins or currency? Anyone??
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/2/2023 9:12:11 PM
D
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
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This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 6:39:17 AM
Because it lacked sufficient funds to build a strong navy, the Continental Congress gives privateers permission to attack any and all British ships on April 3, 1776.

In a bill signed by John Hancock, its president, and dated April 3, 1776, the Continental Congress issued "INSTRUCTIONS to the COMMANDERS of Private Ships or vessels of War, which shall have Commissions of Letters of Marque and Reprisal, authorizing them to make Captures of British Vessels and Cargoes."

Letters of Marque and Reprisal were the official documents by which 18th-century governments commissioned private commercial ships, known as privateers, to act on their behalf, attacking ships carrying the flags of enemy nations. Any goods captured by the privateer were divided between the ship’s owner and the government that had issued the letter.

Congress informed American privateers on this day that "YOU may, by Force of Arms, attack, subdue, and take all Ships and other Vessels belonging to the Inhabitants of Great Britain, on the high seas, or between high-water and low-water Marks, except Ships and Vessels bringing Persons who intend to settle and reside in the United Colonies, or bringing Arms, Ammunition or Warlike Stores to the said Colonies, for the Use of such Inhabitants thereof as are Friends to the American Cause, which you shall suffer to pass unmolested, the Commanders thereof permitting a peaceable Search, and giving satisfactory Information of the Contents of the Ladings, and Destinations of the Voyages."

The distinction between pirates and privateers was non-existent to those who faced them on the high seas. They behaved in an identical manner, boarding and capturing ships using force if necessary. However, privateers holding Letters of Marque were not subject to prosecution by their home nation and, if captured, were treated as prisoners of war instead of criminals by foreign nations.



https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-authorizes-privateers-to-attack-british-vessels?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0403-04032023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 8:15:28 AM
OK so how did the actions of these privateers influence the course of the war? How effective were they in preventing the undeclared British blockade of US ports?

What influence did British privateers have on the course of the war? How well did they mitigate the effects of the American privateers?

Cheers,

George

NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 8:32:18 AM
Quote:
OK so how did the actions of these privateers influence the course of the war? How effective were they in preventing the undeclared British blockade of US ports?

What influence did British privateers have on the course of the war? How well did they mitigate the effects of the American privateers?

Cheers,

George


Sure George!
Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 Letters of Marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships.

Privateers achieved the best results if they could bluff an opponent into believing opposition was futile. When this failed the result was often vicious combat with unpredictable results. Many privateers were captured or sunk when the odds were against them. In spite of all the risks and hazards, the overall effort to cripple Britain's commercial fleet was highly effective, and fortunes destined to finance the new republic were made. It is estimated that the total damage to British shipping by American privateers was about $18 million by the end of the war, or just over $302 million in today's dollars.

https://www.nps.gov/articles/privateers-in-the-american-revolution.htm

John Paul Jones is perhaps the most famous privateer of the American Revolution. He volunteered his services just as the new Continental Navy and Marines formed to establish himself as the preeminent American privateer.

https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/militia-sea. Despite British attempts to discourage privateering, privateers in both wars achieved great success in harassing British commerce and bolstering the American economy. The British refused to parole or exchange any prisoner from a privateer that maned less than fourteen guns. The British treated privateers, who made up a bulk of prisoners of war, very harshly to discourage privateering and encourage enlistment in the Royal Navy. British vessels traveling across the Atlantic were required to travel with an escort or in convoy. Consequently, American privateers often patrolled the waters of the British Isles and the West Indies, thus carrying war into British waters. These patrolling locations were made possible by the French, who allowed American privateers to dock in French waters.

Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 8:38:16 AM
George, & NYG,

OK, so what's the difference between a Pirate and a Privateer?

MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
NYGiant
home  USA
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This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 8:59:44 AM
Quote:
George, & NYG,

OK, so what's the difference between a Pirate and a Privateer?

MD



pirate...a person who attacks and robs ships at sea.

privateer....an armed ship owned and officered by private individuals holding a government commission and authorized for use in war, especially in the capture of enemy merchant shipping.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 2:14:03 PM
No doubt that the British lost many merchant vessels to the privateers. The insurance costs for merchant shipping companies ballooned. That had the effect of business people clamouring for peace by the end.

But there were consequences to operating an ad hoc navy of privateers. For one thing it became very difficult for the Continental Navy to recruit sailors. Why? They went off privateering. The Continental Navy became progressively weaker as the war continued. I believe that it was down to 20 ships by the end from a high of 270.

Not often addressed is the existence and rise of Loyalist privateers who preyed upon American merchant vessels. These privateers were not only residents of the northern 13 colonies but from Nova Scotia as well. Authorities in NS authorized individuals to attack American shipping in retaliation for the raids along the Nova Scotian coast.

As well there was retaliation on the part of the British when the privateers chose to attack port cities in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia was full of New Englanders in addition to immigrants from Britain and Europe. The Continental Congress explored the idea of assisting Nova Scotia in revolt but thought the better of it because there was no active rebellion in the colony.

But the privateers plagued coastal cities. When they attacked Saint John, Nova Scotia (now part of New Brunswick) in 1775 the British decided to lay waste to the town of Falmouth (now Portland).


But it would be incorrect to presume that the success of American privateers in seizing British shipping had a great effect on the blockade. The British blockade was very effective until the dastardly French entered the fray and then the RN had to pull it ships from blockade duty. However, there were British privateers as well who continued to enforce the blockade after 1778.

The blockade affected production in the colonies especially in the critical agricultural sector. The reduced production and sales influenced the ability of the revolutionaries to finance the war.

Cheers,



NYGiant
home  USA
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This day in World History! Continued
4/3/2023 5:25:13 PM
We think the French were pretty noble in adding the fledgling US.
Wazza
Sydney  Australia
Posts: 813
Joined: 2005
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 1:39:34 AM
Not sure about those French sentiments nowadays. It seems the USA will never forgive the French for not joining in the war on terror.
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
Joined: 2021
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 6:50:27 AM
Just after 6 p.m. on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. is fatally shot while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. The civil rights leader was in Memphis to support a sanitation workers’ strike and was on his way to dinner when a bullet struck him in the jaw and severed his spinal cord. King was pronounced dead after his arrival at a Memphis hospital. He was 39 years old.



In the months before his assassination, Martin Luther King became increasingly concerned with the problem of economic inequality in America. He organized a Poor People’s Campaign to focus on the issue, including a march on Washington, and in March 1968 traveled to Memphis in support of poorly treated African-American sanitation workers. On March 28, a workers’ protest march led by King ended in violence and the death of an African American teenager. King left the city but vowed to return in early April to lead another demonstration.

On April 3, back in Memphis, King gave his last sermon, saying, “We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop … And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over, and I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight that we, as a people, will get to the promised land.”



One day after speaking those words, Dr. King was shot and killed by a sniper. As word of the assassination spread, riots broke out in cities all across the United States and National Guard troops were deployed in Memphis and Washington, D.C. On April 9, King was laid to rest in his hometown of Atlanta, Georgia. Tens of thousands of people lined the streets to pay tribute to King’s casket as it passed by in a wooden farm cart drawn by two mules.

​The evening of King’s murder, a Remington .30-06 hunting rifle was found on the sidewalk beside a rooming house one block from the Lorraine Motel. During the next several weeks, the rifle, eyewitness reports, and fingerprints on the weapon all implicated a single suspect: escaped convict James Earl Ray. A two-bit criminal, Ray escaped a Missouri prison in April 1967 while serving a sentence for a holdup. In May 1968, a massive manhunt for Ray began. The FBI eventually determined that he had obtained a Canadian passport under a false identity, which at the time was relatively easy.

On June 8, Scotland Yard investigators arrested Ray at a London airport. He was trying to fly to Belgium, with the eventual goal, he later admitted, of reaching Rhodesia. Rhodesia, now called Zimbabwe, was at the time ruled by an oppressive and internationally condemned white minority government. Extradited to the United States, Ray stood before a Memphis judge in March 1969 and pleaded guilty to King’s murder in order to avoid the electric chair. He was sentenced to 99 years in prison.




Three days later, he attempted to withdraw his guilty plea, claiming he was innocent of King’s assassination and had been set up as a patsy in a larger conspiracy. He claimed that in 1967, a mysterious man named “Raoul” had approached him and recruited him into a gunrunning enterprise. On April 4, 1968, he said, he realized that he was to be the fall guy for the King assassination and fled to Canada. Ray’s motion was denied, as were his dozens of other requests for a trial during the next 29 years.



During the 1990s, the widow and children of Martin Luther King Jr. spoke publicly in support of Ray and his claims, calling him innocent and speculating about an assassination conspiracy involving the U.S. government and military. U.S. authorities were, in conspiracists’ minds, implicated circumstantially. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover obsessed over King, who he thought was under communist influence. For the last six years of his life, King underwent constant wiretapping and harassment by the FBI. Before his death, Dr. King was also monitored by U.S. military intelligence, which may have been asked to watch King after he publicly denounced the Vietnam War in 1967. Furthermore, by calling for radical economic reforms in 1968, including guaranteed annual incomes for all, King was making few new friends in the Cold War-era U.S. government.

Over the years, the assassination has been reexamined by the House Select Committee on Assassinations, the Shelby County, Tennessee, district attorney’s office, and three times by the U.S. Justice Department. The investigations all ended with the same conclusion: James Earl Ray killed Martin Luther King. The House committee acknowledged that a low-level conspiracy might have existed, involving one or more accomplices to Ray, but uncovered no evidence to definitively prove this theory. In addition to the mountain of evidence against him—such as his fingerprints on the murder weapon and his admitted presence at the rooming house on April 4—Ray had a definite motive in assassinating King: hatred. According to his family and friends, he was an outspoken racist who informed them of his intent to kill Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He died in 1998.

​https://www.history.com/this-day-in-...a023eefe0cd3d2
================================================== ================================================== ==================
I always thought this was a conspiracy.

Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 7:21:14 AM
MHO,

Check below for new 4-4 topics in history, comments on them??

1581 Francis Drake knighted by Elizabeth I, was he a pirate or a English naval captain?? What say you??

1832 Charles Darwin & HMS Beatle reaches Rio Dr Janario, how was his theory of Evolution accepted??

1865 RE Lee continues to retreat from Grant in Virginia, his men are with out food & supplies Does the ANV still have a chance to win? Some historians suggest he could have turned to Guerrilla warfare!? Actually Jefferson Davis wanted it!? Comments anyone??

1896 Gold is discover in the Yukon, how rich is this strike? Does it ultimately benefit Canada? Maybe the US? What tragedies await? Comments, anyone??

1944 Fr. Gen. Charles de Gaulle forms a new regime with the Communists! Really?? How does this go over? What's your take on Charles?? Anyone?

1949 NATO is formed, how much have they aidded in stopping Russia in the Ukraine? What say you, what are their chances of success??

1968 MLK Jr is killed in Memphis! How far back did this set Civil rights back?? Only the good die young!? Very sad, what say you?? Riots broke out in @ 100 US cities!?? Comments?

1872 in April a Homestead Act is passed in Canada, Can you still homestead in parts of Canada & acquire free land in that way?? Anyone??

Regards,
MD

Any other topics from today we missed?????
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 8:09:46 AM
Quote:
1872 in April a Homestead Act is passed in Canada, Can you still homestead in parts of Canada & acquire free land in that way?? Anyone??


The Dominion Lands Act/Homestead Act was passed in 1872 to encourage people to settle in the prairies. The new government of Canada realized that it had to populate the prairies because Americans were indicating that they had designs on parts of what used to be the Hudson Bay Lands (Rupert's Land). It applied only to the prairie areas and was aimed at individuals but also companies who were paid a fee to colonize. The act set aside First Nations land.

With some foresight, the Act also set aside land that would become national parks.

Because of the need to survey, the act caused problems for people whose settlement in the area predated Canada. These were the Métis people and in the future a rebellion would take place because government surveyors re-surveyed land already occupied.

Individuals were granted 160 acres and had to pay a #10 administration fee. They had three years to build a home, clear the land and plant a crop.

Government advertising to attract immigrants and eastern Canadians to move west. While many Americans moved north for free land, the government also targeted immigrants from eastern Europe whom they felt were the sturdy stock needed to settle the land. The government was interested in good, peasant stock. Clifford Sifton, the politician in charge of immigration called these people, " “stalwart peasants in sheep-skin coats”.




This is a sod house from 1907. Quite a contrast to the prosperous farm in the government advertising.



[Read More]


The act was repealed in 1930 transferring control of lands to the provinces. However, I seem to recall an amendment of the act in 1918 to help veterans of the Great War to settle.

Today most land in Canada is crown land meaning that it is owned by the country. You may not homestead anywhere in Canada, so far as I know. I checked the territories and the territorial governments determine where and when to sell land for building.

As well there are anti-squatting laws.

It's fine to camp on crown land so long as you don't stay longer than 21 days. I have canoe tripped on crown land many times. Unlike provincial or national parks you don't have to register to enter crown lands. Just put in and paddle.

The concept of crown land seems to baffle Americans when we have disputes over softwood lumber. Under NAFTA the US had charged unfair practices because it is the governments in Canada that negotiate stumpage fees with the lumber companies. Most land in the US is privately owned and so stumpage fees are negotiated with owners. And so the US enacts tariffs on Canadian softwood lumber despite losing their cases several times at adjudication panels.

Cheers,

George

Cheers,




Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 10:16:30 AM
Hi George,

It's hard to fathom, that with all the unsettled land Canada has there is no homesteading? I think under certain conditions a few of our great plains states allow homesteading?

Not sure?
Regards,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1968
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 12:01:05 PM
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homestead_Acts
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 12:11:41 PM
Quote:
Hi George,

It's hard to fathom, that with all the unsettled land Canada has there is no homesteading? I think under certain conditions a few of our great plains states allow homesteading?

Not sure?
Regards,
MD



I looked it up and the last US state that permitted free homesteading was Alaska but even that has been discontinued. However, some municipalities in the mid-west will allow homesteading on approved land.

Yes, we have a lot of land but the preference is for regulated growth. Even the territories like Nunavut regulate growth in their urban centres. People still head out on the land to hunt but most live in municipalities.

The other factor at play is the treaties negotiated with First Nations people. They regulate the use of those lands and the federal government would not allow just anyone to squat on FN's lands. It seems that we are continually in discussion with the First Nations about the use of their land. They are very protective as they should be. Burned too often I guess.

Crown lands are often administered by the provinces now and in some provinces you can make an application to the province to purchase a piece of crown land. There may be none available of course.

Crown land is really the people's land. It may be used for recreation and under regulatory control, it may be used for some industries like logging. And research is conducted on crown land as well.
The expression used should really be crown land and water because any water on that land is also administered to by the crown or government.


How much of Canada is crown land? 41% is federal crown land. 48% is provincial crown land. Only 11% is privately owned.

Most of the federal crown land is found in the three territories of Yukon, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.

Canada is a resource rich nation and businesses like mining companies must deal with the federal or provincial governments if they wish to exploit the bounty on the land or under it. Most us don't even think about these crown lands but we know that national and provincial parks, military bases, Indian reserves and provincial forests are allocations on crown land from either the federal or provincial governments.

As I said, I have enjoyed many kilometres of paddling on the lakes and rivers in crown land. Most often there are far fewer paddlers on these waters than in the wilderness federal or provincial parks. But even those parks are sparsely populated by campers when you head inland for a few portages.

Cheers,

George
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 4:24:52 PM
Here you go OP, & thanks!

[Read More]

Cheers,
MD
----------------------------------
"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1968
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
4/4/2023 8:23:40 PM
If they get this keyboard working properly I'll be able to do that for myself. Right now I'm lucky to get a sentence out. Still better than not being able to post at all.
NYGiant
home  USA
Posts: 953
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This day in World History! Continued
4/5/2023 6:59:17 AM

On April 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), an innovative federally funded organization that put tens of thousands of Americans to work during the Great Depressionon projects with environmental benefits.

In 1932, FDR took America’s political helm during the country’s worst economic crisis, declaring a “government worthy of its name must make a fitting response” to the suffering of the unemployed. He implemented the CCC a little over one month into his presidency as part of his administration’s “New Deal” plan for social and economic progress. The CCC reflected FDR’s deep commitment to environmental conservation. He waxed poetic when lobbying for the its passage, declaring “the forests are the lungs of our land [which] purify our air and give fresh strength to our people.”

The CCC, also known as “Roosevelt’s Tree Army,” was open to unemployed, unmarried U.S. male citizens between the ages of 18 and 26. All recruits had to be healthy and were expected to perform hard physical labor. Blacks were placed in de-facto segregated camps, although administrators denied the practice of discrimination. Enlistment in the program was for a minimum of 6 months; many re-enlisted after their first term. Participants were paid $30 a month and often given supplemental basic and vocational education while they served.

Under the guidance of the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, CCC employees fought forest fires, planted trees, cleared and maintained access roads, re-seeded grazing lands and implemented soil-erosion controls. They built wildlife refuges, fish-rearing facilities, water storage basins and animal shelters. To encourage citizens to get out and enjoy America’s natural resources, FDR authorized the CCC to build bridges and campground facilities. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC employed over 3 million men.

Of Roosevelt’s many New Deal policies, the CCC is considered by many to be one of the most enduring and successful. It provided the model for future state and federal conservation programs. In 1942, Congress discontinued appropriations for the CCC, diverting the desperately needed funds to the effort to win World War II.


FDR creates Civilian Conservation Corps
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-creates-civilian-conservation-corps?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0405-04052023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
On April 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), an innovative federally funded organization that put tens of thousands of Americans to work during the Great Depression on projects with environmental benefits. In 1932, FDR took America’s political helm during the country’s worst economic crisis, declaring a “government worthy of […]

================================================== ================================================== ==============================

FDR knew that the way to get out of a Depression, was to keep people employed.
George
Centre Hastings ON Canada
Posts: 13539
Joined: 2009
This day in World History! Continued
4/5/2023 8:05:17 AM
Please stop double and triple posting the same article in multiple parts of the forum. Unnecessary and annoying. Ah, what am I saying. Of course, that would be annoying.
Michigan Dave
Muskegon MI USA
Posts: 8302
Joined: 2006
This day in World History! Continued
4/5/2023 2:37:21 PM
Quote:

On April 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), an innovative federally funded organization that put tens of thousands of Americans to work during the Great Depressionon projects with environmental benefits.

In 1932, FDR took America’s political helm during the country’s worst economic crisis, declaring a “government worthy of its name must make a fitting response” to the suffering of the unemployed. He implemented the CCC a little over one month into his presidency as part of his administration’s “New Deal” plan for social and economic progress. The CCC reflected FDR’s deep commitment to environmental conservation. He waxed poetic when lobbying for the its passage, declaring “the forests are the lungs of our land [which] purify our air and give fresh strength to our people.”

The CCC, also known as “Roosevelt’s Tree Army,” was open to unemployed, unmarried U.S. male citizens between the ages of 18 and 26. All recruits had to be healthy and were expected to perform hard physical labor. Blacks were placed in de-facto segregated camps, although administrators denied the practice of discrimination. Enlistment in the program was for a minimum of 6 months; many re-enlisted after their first term. Participants were paid $30 a month and often given supplemental basic and vocational education while they served.

Under the guidance of the Departments of the Interior and Agriculture, CCC employees fought forest fires, planted trees, cleared and maintained access roads, re-seeded grazing lands and implemented soil-erosion controls. They built wildlife refuges, fish-rearing facilities, water storage basins and animal shelters. To encourage citizens to get out and enjoy America’s natural resources, FDR authorized the CCC to build bridges and campground facilities. From 1933 to 1942, the CCC employed over 3 million men.

Of Roosevelt’s many New Deal policies, the CCC is considered by many to be one of the most enduring and successful. It provided the model for future state and federal conservation programs. In 1942, Congress discontinued appropriations for the CCC, diverting the desperately needed funds to the effort to win World War II.


FDR creates Civilian Conservation Corps
https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-creates-civilian-conservation-corps?cmpid=email-hist-tdih-2023-0405-04052023&om_rid=21539c69abde70e4e3fda02b9d14d1819c3badeaf5a2bcab48a023eefe0cd3d2
On April 5, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), an innovative federally funded organization that put tens of thousands of Americans to work during the Great Depression on projects with environmental benefits. In 1932, FDR took America’s political helm during the country’s worst economic crisis, declaring a “government worthy of […]

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FDR knew that the way to get out of a Depression, was to keep people employed.


Guys,

Was the new deal.& the CCC good programs??

What say you?
MD
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"The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract."
OpanaPointer
St. Louis MO USA
Posts: 1968
Joined: 2010
This day in World History! Continued
4/5/2023 2:47:12 PM
The men were paid $30/month, $25 of which was sent to their families directly. My mother only had one brother at that time and he wasn't old enough.
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