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Operation Rusty: The Gehlen-U.S. Army Connection
The Hundred Years War: An Analysis
Why France Lost the Seven Years' War
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Dalton to Atlanta-Sherman vs. Johnston
The Fenian Raids
Military History of War of 1812
Hitler, Germany's Worst General
A Path Across the Rhine: Remagen
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MacArthur's Failures in the Philippines
The Battle of Cowpens
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Combatants in Black Hawk War
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Popski's Private Army
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An Odd Way to View WWII
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The Battle of Pea Ridge
Tunisian Army in Crimean War
Japan's TA-Operation
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Hitler Youth: An Effective Organization
Dien Bien Phu: A Battle Assessment
After Midway: The Fates of the Warships
Lafayette Escadrille Pilots
Governor Kieft's Personal War
Barbarossa: Strategic Miscalculation
History of 138th PA
Giuseppe Garibaldi
The Story of a "Go Devil"
Long Range Desert Group
Island of Death
The Caterpillar Club
Foundation of Modern Army Regiments
One of Ten Thousand
The Design Was Not Passed On
Subverting the Sultan
John Paul Jones and Asymetric Warfare
The Liberation of Czechoslovakia 1945
Dien Bien Phu 50 Years Later
The Battle of Mogadishu
"A Time of Testing": Battle for Hue
StuIG at Stalingrad
Only the Admirals were Happy
Bicycle Blitzkrieg - Singapore
What if?
The Effect of Industrialization
Tanks in the Garden of Eden
Early Texas Military History
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The Mitrailleuse
The Grande Armee of 1812 in Russia
Role of Artillery in Korea
Thermopylae, Balaklava and Kokoda
Battle of Mantinea
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The French Campaign of 1859
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The Battle of Franklin
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Want of a Nail: Confederate Ironclads
Changing Generalship and Tactics
Nomonhan and Okinawa
Der Bund Deutscher Mädel
Boudicca: What Do We Really Know?
Rulers of the World: The Hitler Youth
The Master's Misstep
The Order of St. Lazarus
Breakout From the Hedgerows
St. Etienne: US 36th Division in WWI
Memories of D-Day
Life and Death of the 10th NJ Infantry
The Raid on Dieppe

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Ken Wright Articles
Island of Death
The Caterpillar Club
Foundation of Modern Army Regiments
Dead Man's Penny
Financing War
One of Ten Thousand
The Design Was Not Passed On

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The Foundation of Modern Army Regiments
The Foundation of Modern Army Regiments
by Ken Wright

Known as the Madhi, (or 'expected one') Muhammed Ahmed had proclaimed himself Prophet of Islam and began in 1883, to set alight the flames of a holy war against the British controlled Egyptian regime in the Sudan.

His fanatical army of Dervishes annihilated a 10,000 Egyptian force sent against him at El Obeid and an Anglo-Egyptian army at El Teb. These defeats panicked the British Government into ordering the remaining forces out of the Sudan and in 1884 sent the famous General Charles Gordon with orders to supervise the withdrawal. As a young Captain in the British Army, Gordon was requested by the Chinese Government to lead a revitalised Chinese army against the Taiping rebel regime in China in 1863 where he achieved a resounding victory (which led to his being given the nickname 'Chinese Gordon').

Believing he could defeat the Madhi's forces, General Gordon ignored his instructions and attacked the Dervish Army. His defeat resulted in his army being besieged in the city of Khartoum for ten months between 1884 –85. The British Governments policy had by then become one of saving money and resources as far as the Sudan was concerned and it was only because of popular sentiment towards General Gordon and his army's plight that a relief force was sent to rescue the trapped forces.

A relief army left Cairo in September, 1884, and after a series of battles, reached Khartoum - but two days too late to save the beleaguered garrison. The Dervishes had overrun the defenders killing them all. The news of General Gordon's death caused outrage throughout the British Empire and was a severe blow to British prestige.

The Colonial Government of New South Wales contacted the British Government with an offer of troops to help recapture the Sudan. The Government in London willingly accepted but with the stipulation the Australian troops be placed under British command. The colonial governments of Victoria, Queensland and South Australia made similar offers but these were rejected possibly due to transportation problems. In a rare example of government organization (especially for the period), a force of 768 was raised in a fortnight. This included infantry, two field artillery batteries (only one went overseas) a small ambulance detachment and a band.

They were trained for three weeks at Victoria Barracks. Issued with scarlet tunics, dark blue red braided trousers, white tropical helmets and puggarees and to wild demonstrations of enthusiasm and patriotism from the people, they marched with pride through the streets of Sydney to the tune of ' The girl I left behind 'and other popular songs to Circular Quay.

With 200 horses, the contingent sailed from Sydney on March 3, 1885 aboard the transports Australasian and Iberian. Over 200,000 citizens bade them farewell. They arrived at Sudan's Red Sea port of Suakin on March 29. This was an historic occasion as it would be the first time soldiers from a self governing Australian colony would fight for the Empire out side their own part of the world and they were determined to prove their worth.

It was not the first time that an Australian colony offered assistance. The previous year the Victorian gunboats Victoria and Albert-then at Malta, enroute to Australia-were offered for service in the Red Sea, off the coast of Sudan. The offer was accepted, but, as it turned out, they were not used.

The British Commander of the Suakin area welcomed the men from Australia then ordered the Australians re-kitted with khaki drill and attached them to a Brigade of Grenadier, Scots and Coldstream Guards. They were disappointed to learn that they had just missed [by two days]two major battles at Hasheen and Tawfrik against the Mahdi's most fanatical General, Osman Digna; but were able to participate in an attack on the hill village of Tamai. After an 18 hour gruelling marches in the blazing desert sun, the Australians were ordered to seize the heights overlooking the village while the main British force attacked the village.

Historians differ over the details of the battle at Tamai. Some say 600 Dervishes were killed; some claim that the attackers only found bodies from a previous battle; still others say the village was deserted by the time the combined British forces actually got there. Certainly the N.S.W contingent came under heavy fire and 3 men were wounded. The village was burnt and the British forces returned to Suakin. A fortnight later, on the 6 May, some Australians took part in another skirmish, at Takdul. A camel corps had been raised and included 50 volunteers from the NSW battalion. These men figured in the action, doing 'some splendid shooting', in the words of a Sydney journalist who was with the expedition.

The British commander- in-chief, General Garnet Wolseley, decided the best way to keep supplies flowing for his war against the Mahdi, was to build a rail line across the desert to the town of Berber, halfway between Suakin and Khartoum. The Australian soldiers and British troops were assigned to guard duty to protect the British railway workers brought to the Sudan to build the line.

During construction, the Dervishes constantly sniped at the troops and workers, slipped through piquet lines and murdered men in their sleep. Fortunately, no Australians were killed but they did suffer from thirst, hunger and the ever-present heat. The artillery, not having an enemy to engage, was transferred to Handoub where they got to do little more than drill for about a month. One Australian volunteer, Captain T.S.Parrott, an engineering officer, who had been a surveyor in civilian life, put his time with the contingent to good use. Parrott's services were loaned to the Commanding Royal Engineer, who set him the task of making maps and a geological survey of the mountains west of Suakin. Back in Australia, these were printed by the NSW Government and forwarded to London.

In May 1885, The British Government received the disturbing news that the Russians had attacked an Afghanistan border town; this was perceived as a possible threat to the jewel of the British Empire, India. The Sudan was to be abandoned to the dervishes and troops sent to guard the Khyber Pass, the gateway to India. For a time it looked like the NSW contingent would be sent there next, but the slowness of the men to volunteer, combined with the public mood back in the colony, put this idea to rest. And so the N.S.W. contingent was sent home on May 17, arriving in Sydney just over a month later. The death toll on active duty was 6, all of whom died of illness or disease.

On arrival, the troops were placed in strict isolation at the quarantine station on North Head, a precautionary measure against disease. Five days later, in freezing rain, but still in their tropical uniforms, they were assembled on parade at Victoria Barracks and had to endure numerous lengthy patriotic speeches by an assortment of public figures including the governor, premier and the contingent's commandant. In 1907, the award of the Honorary Distinction Suakin 1885 was made to the NSW Infantry.

The story of the Australian involvement in the Sudan is not one of heated battles or heroism or tales of great exploits. It is one of a willingness to test their unknown fighting capabilities and to show a steadfast allegiance with the empire. Historians naturally tend to overlook this episode in our military history for the more exciting beginnings from the Boer War onwards. This is unfortunate. It set the precedent for Australian participation in later wars to defend British interests. And while the contingent's experience may have been insignificant as far as battles go, the past, present and future regiments can trace their origins back to these colonial forebears who went to war.

* * *


Queen Victoria's Little Wars.

Australian War Memorial Website. – Sudan.

Front Line Dispatches—Australians at War 1845 - 1972.

The Anzac Tradition—Between the Lines.

The Australian Army—A Brief History.

The Australian Colonies and the Sudan Campaigns of 1884 – 85.

* * *

Copyright © 2006 Ken Wright.

Written by Ken Wright. If you have questions or comments on this article, please contact Ken Wright at:

About the author:
Ken Wright lives in Melbourne Australia and served 5 years in the Australian army in an Armoured Recon Unit. He has worked as a book sales rep and correctional officer. He is married with two children, three dogs, and two cats. He retired early and began writing 4 years ago and has written numerous published articles published for military magazines in Australia, the UK and the US.

Published online: 07/16/2006.

* Views expressed by contributors are their own and do not necessarily represent those of MHO.
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