June 6, 1866, turned out to be warm as some 2,000 (or more, or fewer; no one is
sure) veterans of the Civil War charged across the United States border at St.
Albans, Vermont, and began their attack on British North America. Fenian
Brigadier Samuel P. Spear led the attack that would—if successful—hold Canada
hostage until the English let go their yoke on Ireland.
A preposterous invasion? Not to the thousands of Irish veterans of both the
Union and Confederate Armies that had banded together under a different flag.
Not to President Andrew Johnson, who was demanding reparations from the British
for supporting the Confederate States in the Civil War and would now use the
Fenians as a political lever. And certainly not to the British, who were
waiting with an exponentially larger force. 
The war to free Ireland was an audacious strategy that failed.
Who Were the Fenians?
Feniansm, the Anglicized version of the Gaelic na fianna, referred to
Irish Republican Brotherhood, an organization of perhaps 125,000 members in the
U.S. and Canada ready to support and fight for Ireland's freedom. In North
America, the group was led by John O'Mahony, a veteran of the 1848 rebellion
who, like thousands of others, emigrated from their defeat. In October 1865, he
was deposed at an IRB convention for wanting to take the fight back to Ireland.
William Randall Roberts, born in Cork and living in New York City, became the
IRB's new chief with a different goal of attacking British North America.
Major-General "Fighting Tom" Sweeny, a veteran of the Mexican-American War and
the Civil War, was named secretary of war. 
Sweeny's strategy was to make a three-pronged attack: Brigadier Charles Tevis
would lead 3,000 men out of Chicago north through Detroit and Windsor, Ont., to
Stratford. Another 5,000 men under Brigadier William F. Lynch would cross in
two groups: one from Cleveland across Lake Erie to Port Stanley, joining Tevis'
men at London, Ont., while the other army would cross at Buffalo to take
Hamilton, Ont. After defeating the 8,000 regular Canadian military and the
10,000 militia, they would march on to Toronto.
This was a sly feint. During the distracting attack, the Irish and French in
Montreal would destroy the railway at St. Ann's Bridge to eliminate the return
of British troops. The real attack would come from Vermont at the hand of
Brigadier Samuel P. Spear with 16,800 men. Brigadier Michael C. Murphy would
lead his cavalry to take Cornwall and Prescott, then move east to Montreal. The
Montreal Irish would rise up to meet them and French radicals would supply
fresh horses. As the pieces fell into place, the army would seize Pointe Levis
opposite Quebec City. Fenian warships would sail in to secure the St. Lawrence
River. ("Plan B" was for Spear to secure the area between the Richelieu and St.
Francis Rivers and establish Sherbrooke as the Fenian capital.)
Buttressing this daring strategy to force concessions from the British was the
political influence they felt supported them. Roberts, then chief executive of
the Fenians, had met with President Andrew Johnson. Reportedly, President
Johnson agreed to "recognize the accomplished facts" and acknowledge an Irish
Republic in exile if the Fenians were to establish a foothold in Canada. 
John O'Mahony, a founder of the Fenian movement and would-be liberator of
Fenian Secretary of War Sweeny saw his attack plans approved by the IRB on Feb.
19, 1866. However, the deposed leader O'Mahony had other ideas. O'Mahony
believed he could regain control of the IRB with a force of 1,000 Fenians. On
Apr. 19, O'Mahony's small army under the leadership of Bernard Doran Killian
planned to invade New Brunswick from Calais and Eastport, Maine, and seize the
island of Campobello. From this bastion, he would launch attacks directly on
Ireland. What O'Mahony and Killian didn't know was that informers had tipped
off the British, who were ready and waiting. Further, Gen. George Meade had
been instructed by President Johnson to "make a show of stopping the Fenian
incursion by persuasion and without force of arms."
The encounter was short and the Fenians were defeated as Gen. Meade took
possession of O'Mahony's ship and arms. Many British felt this was the main
attack—and they were wrong. The main event was planned for Thursday, May 31.
The Battle of Ridgeway
It had been a hard chore assembling this fighting force to meet Sweeny's plan.
John O'Neill had been on trains for four days with some 150 men forming the
IRA's 13th Regiment. O'Neill had been a lieutenant in the 5th Indiana Cavalry,
a captain with the 17th USCT and a former Colonel with the 7th Michigan
cavalry. They had left Nashville on May 27. In Louisville, Col. George Owen
Starr and 150 members of the 17th IRA Regiment boarded the train. Starr had
been a lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry (U.S.). At another stop.
Captain James B. Haggerty and a hundred troops got on board. The men had been
ordered to dress in work clothes, disguise their intentions and appear to be
It wasn't at all odd that these Southerners banded together with their Northern
brethren. The IRB had been formed in the United States in 1858 following the
rebellion in Ireland; America's Civil War had only temporarily put the
immigrants on opposite sides of the battle lines.
They arrived in Cleveland expecting to find Fenian General William Francis
Lynch there with boats to ferry them to Canada. Lynch had been a brevet
brigadier general of U.S. Volunteers and led the 58th Illinois at Shiloh's
Hornet's Nest as part of Tom Sweeny's brigade. But Captain William J. Hynes, a
staff officer sent to Cleveland by General Lynch, reported there were no boats.
In disappointment, O'Neill and the others were billeted in warehouses that
night and then returned to the trains to begin the tiresome trip to Buffalo.
As they neared Buffalo, the train slowed so the men could jump off and avoid
the police they suspected were waiting for them. Ammunition had been loaded
onto wagons from the freight yard. While the Fenians hoped to confuse British
spies and the American military, they did wear conspicuous green caps and
green-colored items of clothing as they separated in the city.
Sweeny must have been discouraged with what he saw. Only some 1,200 men were
assembled in Buffalo. Brigadier Lynch, who was to lead the attack, had come
down with a fever, which took him out of the battle before it started. Sweeny
telegraphed for his adjutant, a Colonel Sherwin, to take command, but Sherwin
couldn't get there in time. Sweeny could only have become more agitated at
these developments. In desperation, he ordered Capt. Hynes to take command and
appoint the senior officer, John O'Neill, as acting brigadier and to begin the
attack. O'Neill's 13th IRA Regiment of Nashville, John Hoy of the 7th Regt. of
Buffalo and John Grace of the 18th Regt. of Cleveland made up the contingent's
John C. O'Neill, hero of the Battle of Ridgeway.
O'Neill's army was ready before sunup to make a quick march to the docks where
barges would ferry them across the Niagara River. Ammunition was distributed;
rifled muskets purchased that April in Pennsylvania would await them on the
other side. Weaponry was no problem; once the Civil War had ended, weapons and
ammunition were being sold by their weight rather than count or quality.
Many of the men began donning uniforms of sorts, although O'Neill reportedly
wore gray clothing with a green decorated military cap. Starr's men from
Louisville had blue army jackets with green trim. And there were flags to be
unfurled. Five banners were of six-foot regimental size. Several carried the
golden sunburst and one was emblazoned with a harp.
Other events were unfolding at the same moment. While Fenian groups moved about
the city to confuse authorities as to the illicit army's intentions, a U.S.
district attorney ordered the U.S.S. Michigan's captain to stop all
movement on the Niagara River. The political tide had turned.
Steam tugs pulled the Fenian canal boats across the swift Niagara early in the
morning. At 3:15, June 1, cavalry officer Owen Starr crossed the Niagara with
the Kentucky and Indiana troops and proceeded to the ruins of the old military
Fort Erie to capture the Buffalo and Lake Huron railway depot. Fort Erie,
lightly defended by just six members of the Royal Canadian Rifles, fell to the
Fenians, although the Canadians had time to move out four steam engines and
nine railroad cars. Proudly, the Fenians raised the tricolor flag—today's flag
of the Irish Republic.
Brigadier O'Neill had also crossed his men and set up a headquarters at
Frenchman's Creek, creating defensive entrenchments, planning the next day's
attack—and resting knowing he was under the telescopes on the Michigan.
Ahead of O'Neill's battle-hardened men were the 13th Hamilton, in their red
tunics and blue trousers, and the Queen's Own Rifles in equally impractical
green wool uniforms. O'Neill knew the "Redcoats" outnumbered his army.  He
told his commanders with audacity, "I find that encouraging. A force that size
ought to be unwieldy enough to make life easy for us." He may also have known
that his enemy was made up of inexperienced army and militia. His plan was to
move north along the Niagara River. Once he knew the British troops were on the
move to meet him, he would turn inland and head west toward Port Colborne.
Map illustrating the Fenian Raid on June 2, 1866, in The Fenian raid at Fort
Erie, June the first and second, 1866. Harvard University, Open Collections
Program: Immigration to the United States, 1789-1930.
Lt. Col. John Stoughton Dennis of the Queen's Own was in charge of the forces
at Port Colborne—nearly a thousand militia. He knew Col. George Peacocke,
commander of Niagara forces, was assembling almost 1,500 British Canadian
infantry, six gun batteries and 55 cavalry to repulse the attack. Peacocke,
down the river in Chippawa near the Falls, had planned a pincer movement to
trap the Fenians.
Dennis, however, decided on his own to hold the majority of his troops at Port
Colborne and take 80 troops on the steam tug W.T. Robb east to Fort
Erie to block a Fenian retreat. He wired Peacocke of his plans and set out
without waiting for a reply.
Peacocke's unqualified disapproval of Dennis' plan reached Port Colborne long
after the Robb steamed off. Lt. Colonel Albert Booker, a professional
auctioneer from Hamilton who had been left in command of the 13th Battalion,
was told to proceed with the planned move toward Stevensville. Seeing movement,
Booker began moving 400 regulars, six field guns and 1,115 militia forward. 
By 3:00 on the morning of June 2, O'Neill had moved his troops toward the
ambush he had prepared. Starr's cavalry was to begin the conflict and then
retreat, intending to draw the British into a trap.
Firing from 10 companies of the Queen's Own Rifles, began at about 8:00 a.m.
using the Spencer repeating rifles they had just been issued. Traveling light,
however, the men had each received just 40 rounds of ammunition at best—and
they had never used the new rifles in battle. They saw the scouts, heard the
bugle and expected cavalry, so they formed defensive squares—a standard defense
against swiftly moving horse troops. Brigadier O'Neill ordered his troops to
fix bayonets. Screaming "Fág an Bealach!"—Clear the way! —they charged
forward on foot. The British and Canadians were untested recruits, half of whom
were under the age of 20. As the forward part of the square was ordered to fall
back and reform, the young soldiers turned and retreated in disarray.
A little-known painter, Alexander Von Erichsen, accompanied the Fenian army
from Buffalo to Canada and documented events. This painting shows the death of
an unidentified Fenian leader on the battlefield.
At the end of the Battle of Ridgeway, 16 British had been killed, with two more
dying later of their wounds and two from heat stroke. There were 74 wounded and
six captured. Brigadier O'Neill's force saw five killed, two dying later from
their injuries, and 17 wounded. All in all, it was a glorious battle for the
Fenian raiders in green-trimmed uniforms, some with buttons embossed with the
initials IRA—the Irish Republican Army.
It was time for Brigadier O'Neill to rest his troops and savor the glory—and he
Von Erichsen shows a wounded officer of the Queen's Own Rifles continuing to
fight near the ambush area on the ridge.
Not far away, in Buffalo, Lt. General Ulysses Grant, under orders from
President Johnson, had sealed the border. This blocked the late-arriving
Sherwin's 4,000 Fenian troops. They would not be allowed to cross and reinforce
At the same time, the British were reinforcing their army with 101 officers and
1,841 fresh troops under the command of Col. George John Peacocke. 
Unsure of the enemy's size and position, O'Neill split his army, withdrawing
half back to Fort Erie, with Starr taking a parallel road south of Garrison.
The log of the Michigan noted a large number of Fenians reentering Fort Erie
the afternoon of June 2. It was there that O'Neill was soon confronted by the
Canadian militia force under the command of Lt. Col. Dennis.
O'Neill must have known further fighting was futile: reinforcements wouldn't
arrive, Peacocke's field artillery was setting up nearby, his men were out of
ammunition, and the Michigan, two sentry tugs and a revenue cutter were
patrolling the waters. A truce was called, and it was while the Fenians were
negotiating under the white flag that IRA Lt. Col. Michael Bailey was shot
An Ignominious Defeat
Stagg's canal boat that would evacuate O'Neill's and his men back to the United
States had been towed over, empty. The British and Canadian prisoners were
released. O'Neill and as many men as possible boarded and left the Canadian
shore at approximately 2:00 a.m. on June 3. Within minutes, a twelve-pound
howitzer sent a shell across the path of the tug Doyle as it hauled
its Fenian cargo toward Buffalo. The shot came from the tug Harrison, crewed
with men from the Michigan. O'Neill felt this was as safe a haven as
he could expect under the circumstances.  While O'Neill and his
officers were arraigned by federal officials, about 500 Fenian soldiers also
arrived crammed aboard the A.P. Waite, tied behind the Michigan
in the Niagara River. It had been a three-day war, glorious but achieving none
of the Fenian aims.
On June 4, the Fenians captured by the Canadians began arriving in Toronto.
They were led in handcuffs from their train to the city jail, jeered by crowds
and pelted with garbage.
Of the Fenian prisoners being held in Toronto, about one-third of the 117
captives were sent to trial later in the fall of 1866. Twenty-one were found
guilty of invading Canada, and seven were sentenced to be hanged on Dec. 13,
1866. One was a Catholic priest, Father John McMahon. None of the death
sentences were carried out, but Father McMahon was the last prisoner to be
released. There was a large Irish population in British North America, the
authorities felt, and it would do no good to needlessly alienate voters.
In the United States, Fenian officers who had been captured were all freed on
the promise they would appear later before the Federal circuit court at
Canandaigua. The paroled soldiers were given free railroad transportation back
to their homes if they agreed not to again illegally cross international
Politics was again at work: the Irish vote was too important to U.S.
politicians to be squandered on something as minor as the invasion of a
The Final Attack
The sleepy town of St. Albans, Vermont, was no stranger to armed conflict as
General Spear and his troops disembarked from trains in early June. Two years
earlier, on Oct. 19, 1864, Confederate raiders had swooped down out of Canada,
raided three banks in the small town, stole $208,000, and rode back into
Canada.  One wonders what the townspeople thought as General Spear and his
troops set up camp on the town green. Everyone must have been aware of the
disorder taking place in the Buffalo area.
On June 6, Spear gave the order to cross the border from St. Albans. Brigadier
Michael C. Murphy moved his men 15 miles inland before being forced back. Spear
marched his 2,000 men six miles north from St. Albans where they took
Frelighsburgh, and then rolled on to capture St. Armand, Slab City and East
Stanbridge. On June 8, a Friday, Colonel Michael Scanlan's regiment defeated
the British at Pigeon Hill.
Then, the Fenians' problems began compounding. The Irish in Montreal did not
rise up. Some 10,000 militia joined the British regulars there, and three
British warships sat in the St. Lawrence River with their guns trained on the
Even worse, the Fenian cause had been sold out by the U.S. government. As Spear
crossed the border, President Johnson cut a deal with the British. In return
for $15 million in reparation payments for losses suffered by the Union during
the Civil War, the United States decided to enforce the Neutrality Laws of
1818. The Fenians had been successfully used as a political bargaining chip. In
spite of what President Johnson had earlier told the IRB, the United States was
not going to sanction war.
Spear could only retreat on June 9. Then they were betrayed again. As they
returned to the United States, a U.S. Lt. Col. Livingston of the 3rd Artillery
Regt. unilaterally gave the British forces permission to pursue the Irish onto
American soil. He watched, it is reported, while Fenians were bayoneted and
killed by swords. 
A collateral casualty was a Mrs. Eccles, citizen of Vermont, who was
accidentally shot and killed by a British soldier while standing on her
When the Fenians finally arrived back in St. Albans, they found the park where
they had camped occupied by U.S. troops and their supplies confiscated under
the Neutrality Act of 1818. The defeated Fenians—no doubt tired and
dismayed—were escorted to the train depot, put on board and sent back to
Boston. The residents of St. Albans were entertained by an army band concert.
The War's Aftermath
Quickly, an American public voiced its outrage at the Fenians' treatment. Lt.
Col. Livingston was reprimanded for allowing this violation of American
In August, Canada suspended the right of habeas corpus for the period
of a year for anyone suspected of complicity in the Fenian attacks.
In Canada, Albert Booker was charged with handling his volunteers poorly. Lt.
Col. Dennis, who had cut off O'Neill at Fort Erie, was court martialed for
cowardice. While fighting at Fort Erie, Dennis had disappeared, only to appear
in Col. Peacocke's camp, clean shaven and wearing civilian clothes!
The Fenians' weapons, confiscated by the crew of the Michigan were
returned on Dec. 2. Michael Bailey, shot under a flag of truce and slowly
dying, led the macabre victory parade away from the gunboat. 
Brigadier John O'Neill, hero of the battle of Ridgeway, went on to be elected
president of the senate of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. He tried another
cross-border attack from Franklin, Vermont, in 1870, and failed. He tried in
1871to entice Louis Riel (defender of the Métis, descendants of French
and Indian women in Manitoba) to take up the cause, and this
attack also failed. Eventually, O'Neill retired to a town on the Elkhorn River
in Nebraska, and the town was named for him. 
The raids had a chilling effect on Canada-United States relations until
rapprochement was reached early in the 20th century. Normalization didn't occur
until the countries formed an alliance during World War II. The raids, however,
did serve to bring Canadians together, and the Confederation that had begun was
finalized 13 years after the 1866 incursions.
Perhaps the most fitting epitaph to this War That Never Happened came from
General "Fighting Tom" Sweeny. "If I had done this in some other country," he
stated, "I would be a hero. But here, here I am just one of the boys, prowling
the night with the other highwaymen."
One wonders what possessed the Johnson administration to allow the arming and
assembly of an illicit army within the U.S. borders. Most likely, President
Johnson and Secretary of War Stanton chose to ignore the neutrality laws
because the British had done so earlier, but it may also have resulted from
political ineptitude or simple distraction at the end of a long enfeebling war.
Another insight comes from an interview Johnson gave O'Neill in 1868.
"General," the President reportedly said, "you people unfairly blame me a good
deal for the part I took in stopping your first movement. Now I want you to
understand my sympathies are entirely with you, and anything which lies in my
power I am willing to do to assist you. But you must remember I gave you five
full days before issuing any proclamation stopping you. What, in God's name,
more did you want? If you could not get there in five days, by God, you could
never get there; and then, as President, I was compelled to enforce our
Neutrality Laws, or be denounced on every side." 
Footnotes and Bibliography
. The Lincoln and Welland Museum in St. Catharines, Ont.
. Benedict Maryniak, "The Fenian Raid and Battle of Ridgeway June 1-3, 1866"
. B. Maryniak
. Robert D. Hall, Bivouac Books.
. B. Maryniak
. R. Hall, Bivouac Books
. B. Maryniak
. B. Maryniak
. The St. Albans (Vt.) Historical Museum and VirtualVermont, an Internet
magazine, profile the 1864 Confederate incursion from Canada.
. R. Hall, Bivouac Books
. A history prepared by Jeffrey Kraus, at www.antiquephotographics.com
. J. Kraus
. B. Maryniak
. Henri Le Caron, Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service
The Lincoln and Welland Museum in St. Catharines, Ont., offers a succinct
timeline of events from Dec. 20, 1865, to Oct. 5, 1871. See
"The Fenian Raid and Battle of Ridgeway June 1-3, 1866," Benedict Maryniak,
describes the IRB organization, order of battle and raids in the Web site of
the 155th New York Voluntary Infantry Reenactment Regiment, Inc. Dramatic
present-day reenactment photos and sources for further reading are included at
Bivouac Books, Robert D. Hall, Jr. provides a succinct history of
Feniansm. Hall is a veteran of WW2 and Korean War and was employed by the
Massachusetts Department of Veterans Services. He is a 35-year member CWRT of
Greater Boston and one of the founders of the Olde Colony Civil War Roundtable.
He is also a member of the Ancient & Honorable Artillery Company of
Massachusetts, the First Corps of Cadets, and the Massachusetts Military
History Society. He is the author of numerous articles and papers on Civil War,
Revolutionary War, and Irish American topics. In 2001 he found and arranged the
return of the remains of New England's last Confederate POW, Navy Lt. Edward
Johnston, to Fernandina, Florida.
An overall narrative, timeline and many details were sourced at Jeffrey Kraus's
Web site for antique photos, www.antiquephotosgraphics.com.
The 155th New York Voluntary Infantry Reenactment Regiment, Inc. provides
dramatic present-day reenactment photos and sources for further reading, at
www.acsu.buffalo.edu/~dbertuca/g/FenianRaid.html. Benedict Maryniak, the
author, describes the IRB organization, order of battle and raids in detail.
Capt. David J. Bertuca of the Regiment provides additional information sources
at the site.
Twenty-Five Years in the Secret Service, Henri Le Caron, London, 1892.
Le Caron was an alias adopted by Thomas Beach, a Fenian who served also as a
Written by Walter Giersbach. If you have questions or comments on this
article, please contact Walter Giersbach at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
About the Author:
Walter Giersbach’s fiction has appeared in a score of online and print publications. He also writes extensively on American history, with 10 pieces published in Military History Online. Two volumes of short stories, Cruising the Green of Second Avenue, published by Wild Child (www.wildchildpublishing.com) were available from online retailers until his publisher ceased operations. He served for three decades as director of communications for Fortune 500 companies, helped publicize the Connecticut Film Festival, managed publicity and programs for Western Connecticut State University’s Haas Library, and moderates a writing group in New Jersey.
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